o William James (1842-1910) was the first truly great American philosopher, and
the most original and influential advocate of pragmatism.
o Pragmatism is an empirically based philosophy that defines knowledge and truth
in terms of practical
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o Fundamental Questions
What are our cognitive states? (Knowledge, belief, perceptual
How are they related?
What are their objects?
When are they acceptable?
What are our cognitive method
Philosophical movement that deals with human freedom
Requires individuals to posit their own subjective values
Proposition1: Existence before Essence
i.e. an individual exists (physically) before his or her life has value
The Greek Philosophers
o The founders of Western Thought
o (The Original Dead White Males)
o PreSocratics (7th - 5th century B.C.)
The power of the elements rather than just the gods.
Developed at the same time as Democracyrationaliza
Introduction to Philosophy
o Philosophical Terms
Things you ought to know.
o What is Philosophy?
The study of philosophy involves critical thinking. Critical thinking, the
engagement of the thinker in rational deliberation- investigation,
o Is there a rational basis for the belief in God.
o What is Metaphysics?
Metaphysics is the study of ultimate reality.
Common sense can fool us.
So metaphysics set out to explore what is beyond the physical.
What might these questions be
o Analytic philosophy is a generic term for a style of philosophy that came to
dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century. In the United States the
overwhelming majority of university philosophy departments self-identify
Structuralism as constructive not destructive
Post-structuralism as deconstruction
Meanings are unstable, changing and contextual
Impossible to construct laws of interaction and social order
o Is not a unified position (e.g., Husserl, Merleau-Ponty, Sartre, Heidegger)
o A school of philosophical thought that underpins all of QL research.
Emphasis on experience and interpretation
Also is a set of tools
Focus of the
o Types of Government
Democracy- Rule by the people
Monarchy- rule by a king
Oligarchy- rule by a group
Theocracy- rule by religious leaders
Despotism or Dictatorship- rule by someone who seized the government
o Right o
Philosophy & Religion in China
o Chinese Folk Religion
Religion in Asia
In China and Japan philosophy and religion are not two separate pursuits
People are more than one religion without any conflicts
Oriental religions are comp