What is psychology?
scientific study of overt behavior and mental
process (covert behavior)
beyond the simple method of introspection and relies on
scientific observation and empirical research met
HERZBERG's TWO FACTOR THEORY
( Motivation Hygiene Theory)
This theory is developed by Frederick Herzberg and his associates, after conducting a series of
interviews with 200 engineers and accountants, focusing on factors considered to be important as
Financial and Non Financial Motivation.
When we take human beings in organisations for analysing motivational pattern, we identify two
groups of individuals. Managers and workers. Some of the studies have focussed on the motivation of
managers and some ot
ERG Theory of Motivation.
In 1969, Clayton Alderfer's revision of Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, called the
ERG Theory appeared in Psychological Review in an article titled "An Empirical Test of a New
Theory of Human Need." Alderfer's contribution t
EDS511: Entrepreneurial Development Studies IX
MODULE 1 IDEAS, INVENTION AND INNOVATION
Concept of Idea, Invention and Innovation
In today's Knowledge Economies, there is the emergence of new paradigms for innovation and
the advancement of knowledge in re
In every organisation, a large number of employees work together. Their attitudes,
feelings and needs differ from each other. Such individual difference cause different problems in
an enterprise. These problems may relate to the orga
ELTON MAYO'S HAWTHORNE STUDIES.
The Hawthorne Studies (or experiments) were conducted from 1927 to 1932 at the
Western Electric Hawthorne Works in Chicago, where Harvard Business School professor Elton
Mayo examined productivity and work conditions. The s
McCLELLANDS NEEDS ACHIEVEMENT THEORY.
Shortly after the second world war, David McClelland of Harvard University developed
achievement theory which places great emphasis on needs and individual difference. He has
identified three types of basic motivating
C O N F L I C T.
When individuals and groups interact, there is always a potential for conflict. Conflict is
disagreement or opposition between or among persons regarding goals, issues, perceptions and
so on, whenever there is some interaction between or
Various researches have identified various techniques in dealing with conflict between
two or more individuals. Some of the primary strategies for dealing with and reducing the impact
of behaviour conflicts are,
Avoidance. In certain
Brainstorming technique was developed by Alex Osborn, in 1938. The technique was
used originally to develop an advertising programme, but the technique is now widely used by
many Companies , educational institutions and other organisations;
Discouraged by the lack of success in identifying the universal traits, researchers turned
their attention to the behaviours of leaders. Leadership according to this approach is the result of
effective role behaviour. Leadership is s
Attitude is an important variable in human behaviour. Attitudes refer to feelings and
beliefs of individuals or groups directed towards other people, objects or ideas. Attitudes are
learned as human beings learn various other responses. When th
MASLOW's NEED HIERARCHY THEORY.
Psychologist, Abraham Maslow has developed the theory of the hierarchy of needs in
1943. According to him, there seems to be a hierarchy in to which human needs are arranged.
The needs are ranked in a hierarchy in which one
TYPES OF CONFLICT SITUATIONS.
Since conflict has both positive and negative consequences, it must be looked into and
managed for organisational benefit. Management must survey the situation to decide whether to
stimulate conflict or resolve it. There are
When two people interact with each other, there results a social transaction. Analysis of
the social transactions is called Transactional Analysis. TA is the study of moves, people make
in their dealings with each other. It offers
This approach was one of the first attempt to explain leader behaviour, or attempts to
influence subordinates. This approach focused on certain characteristics that separate leader
from others. Trait approach leadership studies were quite
Theory Z describes the Japanese management practices and how these can be adopted to the
environment of the United States and other countries. Ouchi; who has given Theory Z, has made
a comparative study of American and Japanese management practic
The study of groups in work situation has been an important activity of behavioral
scientist ever since the pioneering work of the Hawthorne Researchers over seventy years ago.
The outcome of numerous studies into different aspects of the
Individuals differ widely in their physical characteristics, temperamental qualities, mental
abilities and the ways in which they behave. These differences form the very basis of
organisational psychology. The significance and impli
CHAPTER 2: BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Individual nerve cell
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
All parts of the nervous system EXCEPT the brain and the spinal cord
Includes the somat
Humans in a Social Context
Scientific study of how individuals behave, think, and feel in social situations
Applied to all people, in all groups, in all contexts, at all times
NATURE AND NURTURE
Study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities
from conception to death
Transmission of physical and psychological
characteristics from parents to offsp
Origins of therapy
Current form of therapy, psychotherapy, has a long history
that begins in the middle ages
Defined as any psychological technique used to facilitate positive
changes in a persons personality, behavior, or adjustmen
Any behavior that has a positive impact on other
Altruism, helping others, listening to others, etc.
Any behavior that has a negative impact on other
Psycotherapy a fancy word for any technique that brings a positive change in personality
behavior or personal adjustment.
Origins of Therapy: Therapy was awful, some treatments where based on the idea that people
2 MARCH 2016
Is not all-or-nothing. Partial memories are common
How is memory stored
Encoded (sensory mmry) > stored (short-term mmry) > retrieved (long-term mmry)
1. Sensory mmry
first stage, exact of incoming info. Usually unaware of
Experts vs. Novices
Based on acquired strategies and specific organized knowledge.
Expert: something you are very adapt at. Expertise allows more automatic processing. More
likely to see the true nature of the problem. Define things more flexibl
Exposure Therapy: expose lil by lil till the person gets over it
MEDICATION /-/ THERAPY
Medication doesnt break the stimulus change. Think about classical conditioning.
Token Economies. Earn tokens for desirable bxs. Loose tokens for inappropriate bxs.