QUIZ 4 ASTRONOMY:
1. A lunar eclipse always happens: (A)
A. on a full moon day
B. during a 1st quarter moon
C. can happen on any day
2. Why are total lunar eclipses seen more often than total solar eclipses? (D)
A. Total lunar eclipses happen more often t
ASTR 101 QUIZ 9:
1. What is the most abundant element in interstellar gas clouds (A)
2. What is the main cause that makes interstellar gas clouds collapse and form new stars? (A)
ASTR 101 QUIZ 8:
1. When the distance to a star is doubled, its brightness (B)
A. Decreases by a factor of 2
B. Decreases by a factor of 4
C. Decreases by a factor of 8
D. Remains unchanged
2. Does a cube of ice emit thermal radiation? (B)
A. No, only obj
ASTR 101 CHAPTER 7 QUIZ:
1. What is the advantage of a satellite in a geosynchronous orbit? (A)
A. It is always located about the same location over the Earth.
B. On every pass, it sees a different part of the Earth, covering the whole Earth in 24 hours
Chapter 6: Telescopes
Portals of discovery: revolution in scopes, technology, and data collection have changed our view
of the cosmos.
6.1 Eyes and Cameras: Everyday Light Sensors
We acquire data from our senses and analyze it with our brains. Astronomy u
The Cosmic Perspective
Bennett et.al 7th ed., 2011 Pearson
Preface: note the 5 themes and Mastering Astronomy
About the Authors:
How to Succeed in the Course: note the time commitment!
Foreword: The meaning of Cosmic Perspective. Read this!
PART I DEVELOP
Chapter 9: Planetary Geology
Earth and Other Terrestrial Worlds
Why are the terrestrial worlds so different? The properties at birth determine the processes that shape
inner worlds differences.
9.1 Connecting Planetary Interiors and Surfaces
Earth has cha
Chapter 3: The Science of Astronomy How did modern astronomy develop?
3.1 The Ancient Roots of Astronomy
In what ways do all humans use scientific thinking?
Observations produce guesses. Guesses (hypotheses) are then tested against nature. Science is a
Chapter 5: Light and Matter
Reading Messages from the Cosmos: Light carries information about distant matter. It can tell us what
objects are made of, their temperature, their mass, their motions, and more. Telescopes gather light so
we can analyze it. Ho
PART II: KEY CONCEPTS IN ASTRONOMY (ch 4-6)
Chapter 4: Making Sense of the Universe
Laws and Interactions of Matter, Motion & Energy, plus Gravity. Understanding the universe from atoms
to galaxies is based on how matter and energy interact. (physics) Onl
PART III: LEARNING FROM OTHER WORLDS (ch 7-13)
Chapter 7: Our Planetary System
7.1 Studying the Solar System: Comparative Planetology: focuses on process
1) patterns: insights to SS formation,
2) insights for Earths physical processes,
3) applications to
Chapter 2: Discovering the Universe for Yourself
An exciting time in the history of astronomy. What you can see in the night sky. Quite a history!
2.1 Patterns in the Night Sky
It took a long time to learn our place in the cosmos.
What Does the Universe L
Star Patterns in the Sky
What are they? 88 currently recognized patterns [There used to be
other ones, no longer officially recognized, like the XIX century
Quadrans Muralis, after which the Quadrantid meteor shower is
named, or the Pleiad
Phases & Eclipses
Motion and Phases of the Moon
Orbit: The Moon revolves the Earth with a prograde orbit, with period (sidereal month) 27.3 days [it covers 12/day, almost 1 km/sec],
tilted 5; It is not exactly a circle [the distance can be measured to
First telescopes: 1608 in the Netherlands, magnified 2-3 times objects on land; spread quickly and were available in Italy by 1609.
First use in astronomy: Galileo improved the design in 1609 until it
magnified 20, then turned it to t
Solar System 1
Overall properties: The name comes from the king of the gods,
Zeus / Jupiter; The planet's radius is 11.2 Earth radii, with a rotation period 10 hr, and the radius of its orbit is 5.20 AU [with a period 11.9 years]; It is more mass
Solar System 2
Overall properties: The name comes from the God of the Heavens,
father of Cronus-Saturn [+ Cyclopes + Titans]; Almost 20 AU from
the Sun, on an almost circular orbit [eccentricity 0.02, period 84
years]; The planet is a bluish gas b
History of Astronomy
Prehistoric Period - Early Sites and Archeoastronomy
Earliest evidence: Cave paintings like the ones at Lascaux (16,000 yr
old) and others including depictions of celestial objects (stars,
5000-yr old map of the Moon).
Life in the Universe
What Happened on Earth?
4.6 Gyr ago: Formation of the Earth.
4.5-4 Gyr ago: Chemical evolution: - At first, atmosphere formed
from H, N, C, O degassing; Then, those gases combined into CH ,
NH , CO , H O molecules.
3.9 Gyr ago: Hea
Meteors or "shooting stars": Small grains, at most pea-sized (not
stars at all!) that crash into our atmosphere at 160,000 mph [compared to 2,230 mph for a rifle bullet]; Millions burn up every day
several tens of miles up in our
The Celestial Sphere
What is it? An imaginary sphere surrounding the Earth on which celestial objects appear to be located; thought to really exist in antiquity, today used as tool to identify locations in the sky.
Special places: Celestial Equator, Nor
Appearance: A 0.5-wide bright disk; Apparently smooth and uniform, during eclipses shows an "atmosphere"; Upon closer inspection *and using the right kind of light) it shows sunspots and other
What is it? From its spect
I was raised in Memphis, TN. I consider myself to be culturally diverse and ethically
open. Due to the fact of, the diverse population of people in Memphis I was able to experience a
variety of ethnic gro
By the way, what phase of the Moon is this?
What phase is this?
A lunar eclipse:
the shadow of Earth falls on the Moon (may occur at full moon - not every time) Same eclipse for everyone on Earth: once a year on average
How do they work?
Use eyepiece to watch image
Lens collects light Use eyepiece to watch image
Mirror collects light
Large lens/mirror collects much light the diameter of the telescope is the important