SECTION 1
NUMBER SYSTEMS
The Casio fx 260 solar calculator will be the only calculator used for MLS 203. It can be purchased at Office
Depot for approximately $9.50 plus tax.
1. Number systems
Arabic numerals
Based on a system of 10
2. Positional in natu

Exponents
1. Exponents - are used in indicate that the number is being multiplied by itself as many times as is
indicated in the exponent.
2. Base number to be multiplies
3. Power Small superior digits written directly to the right of the base used to ind

SECTION 2:
FRACTIONS, DECIMALS and PERCENTAGES
Use of the Casio fx-260 solar calculator for solving math problems (provided by the MLS Department)
1. Fractions The division of a value into any number of equal parts
2. Common Fractions are written in two p

the metric prefixes table
prefi
x
symbo factor decimal number
l
s
short
scale*
long scale*
(UK/US etc)
(Europe exc
UK)
101
10
ten
ten
hecto h
102
100
hundred
hundred
kilo
103
1,000
thousand
thousand
mega M
106
1,000,000
million
million
giga
G
109
1,000,00

Mathematics
O R D E R O F C A L C U L AT I O N S
O R D E R O F O P E R AT I O N S
RECIPROCALS
SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
Order of Calculations
Order when there are no parenthesis
Multiply and Divide from left to right
Add and Subtract
Example:
3x4+682+1x3
(3 x 4

Dilutions
C O M PA R I S O N B E T W E E N R AT I O S A N D D I LU T I O N S
Dilutions
Definition a dilution is described as the number of
parts of the material being diluted in the total
number of parts of final product.
Dilution = a weakened solution
Co

Repeated Dilutions
T O TA L V O LU M E
T U B E D I LU T I O N
S O L U T I O N D I LU T I O N
S U B S TA N C E C O N C E N T R AT I O N
A M O U N T O F O R I G I N A L S O LU T I O N
D I LU T I O N S E R I E S
D E P E N D E N T D I LU T I O N
D I LU T I O

MLS 203
Clinical Laboratory Calculations
PROFESSOR: DR. MARGOT HALL
FA L L 2 0 1 3
LECTURE SERIES
Number Systems
Arabic numerals
Based on a system of 10
Positional in nature (position relative to the
decimal
point).
Example: 9834.605
with numbers to th

Exponents
P O S I T I V E A N D N E G AT I V E E X P O N E N T S
R UL ES A N D EXAM P L ES
Exponents
Exponents - are used in indicate that the
number is being multiplied by itself as many
times as is
indicated in the exponent.
Base number to be multipli

Graphs and Standard
Curves
GRAPHS
VA R I A B L E S
C URV ES
X AXIS
Y AXIS
Z AXIS
Graphs and Standard Curves
Terms to know:
Graph - grids of lines used to show a relationship between
properties
Variables pared values of coordinate pairs which produce
point

Logarithms
COMMON LOGARITHMS TO BASE 10
Logarithms
Have 2 parts: Characteristic and mantissa written as
2. 5638
Characteristic mantissa
Determine the characteristics
Numbers 1 (characteristic = 0 or positive number.)
Real No.
Real No. Exponent Characteris

pH
H E N D E R S O N H A S S E L B A L C H E Q U AT I O N
pH
Henderson Hasselbalch Equation
pH = pka + log [base]
[acid]
What is the pH of the patients urine if he has the following lab values?
[H2P04] = 15 mEg/L Answer: pH = pka + log [base]
[HPo4] = 28

MLS 203
Clinical Laboratory Calculations
FRACTIONS
DECIMALS
PERCENTAGES
Fractions
Fractions The division of a value into any number of
equal
parts
Common Fractions are written in two parts
(Example: a_ ) a = numerator
b b = denominator
Numerator specifies

Colorimetry/Spectrophotometry
DIRECT COLORIMETRY
B E E R S L AW
U S I N G T R A N S M I T TA N C E
R E L AT I O N S H I P B E T W E E N A B S O R B A N C E & % T
A B S O R B A N C E A N D I T S R E L AT I O N S H I P T O M O L A R
ABSORPTIVITY
Direct Colo

E
.l
Chupierl? - Quality Assurance inihe Clinical Laboratory: Basic Statistical (oncepts 255
tASIC STATISTICAL CONCEPTS
As laboratorians, we strive to produce accurate laboratory results. Statistical
analysis of data is one tool we can use to help us

48 Quality Assurance
CHAPTER 4
Retative frequency
~3 SD —2 SD —1 SD
FIGURE 4-7
A normal distribution curve showing specific SD uniis.
speciﬁed SD units about the mean. The usual conﬁdence lim—
its used in the clinical laboratory are as follows:

F I c u R r: 6—4 ' . I
A, A pipette suction device. 8, A white blood cell counting
pipette; C, A hemocytometer.
F I G U R E 6—5
Delivery of a diluted specimen to a hemocytometer chamber
withva glass White blood cell pipette. ' l.
The Basics of Manual Ce

International System of Units (SI) for the French Systeme International dUnites, is a modern version of the metric
system. It was established in 1960 and is a widely used system of measurement.
Basic Property
Property symbol
Basic Unit
Basic Unit Symbol
L