V. Heat Transfer by Radiation
Thermal Radiation (Chap. 9.1)
Heat radiation rate: qr A1F12 T14 T24 or heat flux q
qr
F12 T14 T24
A
Blackbody Radiation (Chap. 9.2)
Blackbody, or ideal radiator, is a body that emits and
adsorbs the maximum possible amount
VI. Heat Exchanger
Introduction of Heat Exchangers
Basic Types of Heat Exchangers (Chap. 8.2)
A heat exchanger is a device in which heat is transferred between a warmer and a colder
substance, usually fluids. There are three basic types of heat exchangers
Part II. Heat Conduction in Slabs/Plane Walls
Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction (Chap. 1. 3.1)
qk kA
Tx
dT
(differential form)
dx
Tx x
x
Thermal Conductivity k (Chap. 1. 3.2)
Fouriers law also defines the thermal conductivity (Chap. 1.3.2) as
q /A
k k
dT /
Part I. Introduction to Heat Transfer
Heat is a form of energy
Energy is the ability to do work. Energy takes many forms, including heat, light, chemical,
electric, mechanical, atomic, sound, etc.
Heat Transfer
Heat transfer is related to but different fr
Part IV. Convection Heat Transfer
Convective Heat Transfer
qc hc Ts T k f
T
y
y 0
free or natural convection and forced convection
General Transport Equation and Analogy
In transport processes in general, we are concerned with the transfer or movement of
III. Heat Conduction in Cylinders
Shell Energy Balance and Governing Equations (Chap 2.2.3)
Assumptions: steady state, radially symmetric (no variation/activity in the direction),
infinite cylinder (implying no z dependence), constant k.
Assuming constant
Handout 6: 23 Factorial Designs
The following experiment was done on a surface-finishing operation of an overhead cam block auxiliary
drive shaft (see Sirvanci and Durmaz, 1993). The part had a target value of 75 m. The three
experimental factors were: Fa
Chemical Engineering 436
Special Problem #3
Objective: To use the Design Tools feature of the Control Station Software in order to fit
a FOPDT model to dynamic data.
a) Rework problems Q3.1 and Q3.3 to get the process dynamic constants using Design
Tools
Control Stories
Lessons from the Front
Lines
1
James Hasler
4/14/15
Control Stories Control Cont.
Continuous Operation is NOT Steady State
The Strip Chart
The Paper Clips
JustBecauseYouCanMeasureItDoesntMeanYouCanControlIt!
2
James Hasler
4/14/15
Contro
Transfer Functions
Keypoints
PDC Chap 5
Convenient representation of a linear, dynamic model
Transfer function [G(s)] relates one input [U(s)] and one output [Y(s)]
Use LaPlace transform to develop G(s) from U(s) = L[u(t)] and Y(s) = L[y(t)]
Start with Dy
PDC Chap 11
Stability of Closed-Loop
Control Systems
Dynamic Behavior and Stablity of ClosedLoop Control Systems
1
PDC Chap 11
Proportional Control of First-Order Process
Set-point change:
K C KV K P K M
Y
s 1
Ysp 1 K C KV K P K M
s 1
Y
K1
Ysp 1s 1
K
K1 O
PDC Chap 15/PPC Chap 19
Feedforward and Ratio Control
Feedforward Control
1
PDC Chap 15/PPC Chap 19
Disturbances to a system
Can you measure the disturbance?
Can you use this for control?
Or does the controller for level have to wait for
the disturbance t
Appendix
G
Introduction to Plantwide Control
APPENDIX CONTENTS
G.1 Plantwide Control Issues
G.2 Hypothetical Plant for Plantwide Control Studies
G.2.1 Reactor/Distillation Column Plant
G.2.2 Degrees of Freedom Analysis
G.3 Internal Feedback of Material an
Development of Empirical Dynamic
Models from Step Response Data
PDC Chap 7
Black box models
step response easiest to use but may upset
the plant manager (size of input change? move
to new steady-state?)
other methods
impulse - dye injection, tracer
random
PDC Chap 13/PPC Chap 18
Chap 16 (PDC) /Chap 18 (PPC)
Cascade Control
PDC Chap 13/PPC Chap 18
But First, an Example for Deriving PID
Controller Tuning correlations
Controller Design Equation for a 1st Order Process w/ Dead Time:
Based on simplified block d
PDC Chapter 9 & 10
Process Equipment and Valve Design
Keypoints
Control Equipment Critical to Process Safety
Accidents occur when multiple unrelated events happen at the
same time (non-linear response)
Examples of accidents show issues like Safety Culture
ChE 251 Process Dynamics and Control
2012 Exam 1 - KEY
A message from the professor
This exam should test your knowledge of process control basics with a focus on how
control algorithms are designed and operated. Where asked, please provide a clear
concis
ChE 251 Process Dynamics and Control
Exam 2: In Class Portion
100 Points
Name: KEY
Date:
A message from the professor
This exam is designed to test your knowledge and understanding of the level two competencies
discussed in class (see exam review notes).
PPC Chapter 7-9
Workshop #2:
Design and test a P-Only controller for tracking set-point
changes and rejecting disturbances
Explore how controller gain impacts P-Only performance
Dynamic Testing for Controller Tuning - modified from Control Station Notes
S
9/9/2011
Integral Action and PI Control
PPC Chapter 7-9
Key points
Essential Elements of the PI Controller
The Function of the Integral Term (Integral Action)
Advantages and Disadvantages to PI Control
Control Tuning From Correlations
Bumpless Trans
Chemical Engineering 251 Class Schedule
Homework 2
(date assigned)
Class Month
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
Aug
Day
Date
Dec
M
W
F
M
W
F
M
W
F
M
W
F
M
W
F
M
W
F
M
W
F
M
W
F
M
W
PDC Chap 12
Chapter 12 PDC
How to Get Tuning
Parameters for Plant Control?
PDC Chap 12
Can use Transient response
criteria to design the
Controller
PID Controller Design and Tuning
2
PDC Chap 12
Desirable Controller Features
0. Stable
1. Quick responding
9/6/2011
Preliminaries and P-Only Control
PPC Chapter 4 & 5
Focused Learning Points
The Wire In to Wire Out Controller Viewpoint
On/Off Control and Its Limitations
Intermediate Value Control and the PID Algorithm
The Controller Design and Tuning Recipe
P-
Transfer Functions
Keypoints
PDC Chap 5
Convenient representation of a linear, dynamic model
Transfer function [G(s)] relates one input [U(s)] and one output [Y(s)]
Use LaPlace transform to develop G(s) from U(s) = L[u(t)] and Y(s) = L[y(t)]
Start with Dy
PDC Chap 4/PPC Chap 15
Transfer Functions
Convenient representation of a linear, dynamic model.
A transfer function (TF) relates one input and one output:
u (t )
U (s)
system
y (t )
Y (s)
The following terminology is used:
u
input
output
forcing funct
Chapter 2
The Knack!
Chapter 2
Mathematical Modeling of
Chemical Processes
Mathematical Model (Eykhoff, 1974)
a representation of the essential aspects of an existing
system (or a system to be constructed) which
represents knowledge of that system in a us
PDC Chapter 9 & 10
Controller Performance Analysis and
Process Safety
Keypoints
Control Equipment Critical to Process Safety
Accidents occur when multiple unrelated events happen at the
same time (non-linear response)
Examples of accidents show issues lik
The LaPlace Transform and Process Control
PDC Chapter 3
Keypoints
Basic concept
How to transfer an ODE from t space to s space
Examples of typical Laplace transforms
Rules for application
Expansion by Partial Fractions
The LaPlace Transform
Slide 1
The La
PPC Chapter 7-9
Workshop #2:
Design and test a P-Only controller for tracking set-point
changes and rejecting disturbances
Explore how controller gain impacts P-Only performance
Dynamic Testing for Controller Tuning - modified from Control Station Notes
S
PPC Chapter 7-9
Hands-On Workshop
Workshop #5
PI Control of Heat Exchanger Temperature
Derivative Action and PID Control - modified from Control Station Notes
Slide 1
PPC Chapter 7-9
Derivative action and PID control
Keypoints
Essential Elements of the P