Uncertainty in Measurement
All scientific measures are subject to error.
These errors are reflected in the number of figures
reported for the measurement.
These errors are also reflected in the observation
that two successive measures of the same quant
15.1 The Solution Process
The attractions between solvent molecules and
particles of solute must be sufficient to overcome the
attractions of the solvent molecules for one another
and the solute particles for one another in order for
Equilibrium: When exactly opposite physical
processes or chemical reactions occur together
at the same rate, a condition of equilibrium is
said to be established.
When two opposite processes occur at equal rate
19.1 The Brnsted Theory
Brnsted acid is a proton donor, and a
Brnsted base is a proton acceptor
Every Brnsted acid has a conjugate base, and every Brnsted
base has a conjugate acid.
Acid and Base Strength
strong, weak, or fee
5.1 Chemical Formulas
formula is a combination of symbols that identifies a
compound, an ion, or a molecule of an element.
However, chemical formulas do much more. A formula
also indicates the relative quantities of the elements
16.1 Assigning Oxidation
The oxidation number, also known as the oxidation
state, of an atom in a compound (or in a free element or
polyatomic ion) is defined as the number of electrons
possessed by a free (an uncombined) atom
Chemical properties describes the reaction a substance
undergo to form new substances.
The study of chemical changes is at the heart of
Some chemical changes or simple and some or
For example, changes that occur in
Electronic Structure of Atoms
Understand why some substances behave as they do.
For example: Why are K and Na reactive metals? Why do H and
Cl combine to make HCl? Why are some compounds molecular
rather than io
Solids, Liquids, and
Energies of Physical and
14.1 Nature of the Solid and
The Solid State
Crystalline solids have a definite melting
point The structures of crystalline solids
feature regularly repeating arrangem
13.1 Atomic and Ionic Sizes
Some basic scientific principles:
1. Oppositely charged particles attract each
2. Like charged particles repel each other.
3. The greater the charge(s), the greater the
attraction or r
7.1 Formula Masses
The formula mass (also called formula
weight) is the sum of the atomic masses
of all atoms of every element (not merely
each type of atom) in a formula unit.
(a) molecular masses (
Atoms and atomic
Law of Chemical Combination
Law of constant composition: any given compound is
composed of definite proportions by mass of its
For example, every sample of sucrose (C12H22O11, table sugar) contains
6.55 times the mass of
The Study of Chemistry
The Molecular Perspective of Chemistry
Matter is the physical material of the universe.
Matter is made up of relatively few elements.
On the microscopic level, matter consists of atoms and
Factor, Unit and Symbols
Factor Label Method
Method of calculation utilizing a knowledge of units.
Given units can be multiplied or divided to give the
Conversion factors are used to manipulate units:
Units of Measurement
Derived units are obtained from the 7 base SI units.
units of distance
Units of velocity =
units of time
Units of Measurement
The units for volume
are given by (units of
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Mon. and Fri.
Text Book: Fundamentals of Chemistry, 5th , Goldberg