The Ocean Floor
o Oceanography is an interdisciplinary science that draws on the methods and
knowledge of geology, chemistry, physics, and biology to study all aspects of the
o About 71% of the Earth is covered by oceans and
Chapter 3 Notes
Ocean Water and Ocean Life
o Seawater consists of about 3.5 percent (35 ppt) dissolved mineral substances
o Chemical weathering is one source of dissolved substances in the ocean.
o The salinity of Earths oceans have r
Chapter 5 Notes
The Atmosphere: Composition, Structure, and Temperature
o Weather is a term that refers to the state of the atmosphere at a given time and
o Climate is the aggregate weather over a long period of time.
o Most important elemen
Chapter 7 Notes
Air Pressure and Wind
o Air pressure differences create the wind that drives these wind turbines in
o Air pressure differences can also cause the terrific winds of a hurricane. Winds in
Hurricane Katrina reached 160 mph.
Chapter 8 Notes
Weather Patterns and Severe Weather
o An air mass is an immense body of air that is characterized by a similarity of
temperatures and moisture at any given altitude.
o Air-mass weather occurs when a region experiences fairly constan
Chapter 9 Notes
o The best-known and most used system for classification is the Kppen
o The system is based on the concept that natural vegetation is the best expression
o Yearly fluctuations in the boundaries be
Chapter 10 Notes
Origin of Modern Astronomy
o Aristarchus first suggested that the Sun was the center of the universe.
o Much of our knowledge of Greek astronomy comes from a 13=volume treatise,
Almagest (the great work) that was compiled by Ptolem
Chapter 4 Notes
The Dynamic Ocean
o Ocean currents are masses of ocean water that flow from one place to another.
o Surface currents develop from friction between the ocean and the wind.
o Huge circular-moving current systems dominate the surfaces
Chapter 6 Notes
Moisture, Clouds, and Precipitation
o Water is the only substance that exists in the atmosphere as a solid, liquid and gas.
o Ice is composed of water molecules that are held together by mutual molecular
o Snowflakes re
Alfred Wegener is credited with developing the hypothesis of continental drift.
Wegener proposed that all of the continents were originally united in a single supercontinent that
he named Pangaea.
One of the