Fundamentals of Cognitive Psychology
Chapter 9 Problem Solving
Types of Thinking
Directed vs. undirected thinking Reproductive vs. productive thinking Well-defined vs. ill-defined problems -initial state, subgoals, and goal -operators & problem space
What are categories? The internal structure of categories Rule-based approaches Similarity-based approaches Theory-based approaches
What are categories
Categorization is a huge topic How are people able to apply prior knowledge?
Long term memory
What is Long term memory (LTM)? Characteristics of LTM
What is long term memory LTM?
We know lots of things
Facts Events that happened to us Skills
All of these are types of long term memory
Facts, events, and skills are very differe
Complexity Testing explanations in psychology Cognitive Neuroscience
Complexity is key
The amazing thing about thought is that everything is too complicated for us to do
Yet, we manage to get around the world.
What do we mean by co
How do categories get used? Category based induction Conceptual combination How use influences learning
What are categories for?
What we have discussed most so far
Inductive inference (Prediction) Causal reasoning Communica
What is reasoning? What is logic? Can people reason logically?
What is reasoning?
The world does not give us complete information
Might want to assume that there is a party. Would not want to assume that this is lunch.
Reasoning is th
Language and communication
What is language? How do we communicate? Pragmatic principles Common ground
What is language
Language is the most complex form of communication used by any animal Allows the transmission of culture
Permits us to teach others
Novices and experts Expertise and perception Expertise and memory Expertise and judgment Expertise and domain-specificity
What is an expert?
Experts are not just smart.
You would not go to Einstein for a toothache.
Experts know about a partic
Spatial representation Mental maps Large-scale space Small-scale space
The cognitive system uses representations? Definition of a representation
Represented world Representing world Representing relations Process that u
More memory systems
Amnesia: Memory and the brain Amnesia and episodic memory Procedural vs. declarative memory Implicit vs. Explicit memory
What is amnesia?
TV movie of the week amnesia
A person suffers a head injury They cannot remember who they are.
The syntax of language
How do we form sentences? Processing syntax. Language and the brain.
We can combine words into new sentences
The brown dog ate some smelly food.
If we know a word, we can use it in a variety of different sen
Reasoning and Mental Models
Mental models Nave physics Scientific reasoning
Reasoning about devices
Mental models allow us to reason about devices
Kind of like scripts and schemas discussed earlier
People often have causal information ab
Analogy and Similarity
How do we use past experience? What are analogies? Structural alignment Similarity
What to do.
How do you decide what to buy?
Use your past experience.
How do you figure out which experience is relevant?
Using prior knowledge
What is memory for? Short term memory (STM) Characteristics of STM
Who has a better memory?
Do people have better memories than computers?
Many people would say no.
Standard memory task:
Give someone a list of 20 3-digit numbers Give the
Memory systems (cont.)
Interactions among memory systems Episodic and semantic memory Phenomena in implicit memory How many memory systems are there?
We have talked about the systems as separate? Are the systems obviously separate? The
Change blindness Theories of object recognition Viewer-centered theories Object-centered theories
The rich visual world
We appear to see a lot when we look around There is a problem
Our eyes are constantly in motion
Between category structure
Hierarchical structure The basic level Goal-derived categories
What is this?
Poodle, dog, animal, thing, pet?
Any object can be seen as a member of a number of different categories.
Chances are, you fi
Decision making behavior
Why do people make the choices they do? Reason-based choice Regret theory Effort-accuracy Choice and judgment heuristics
Where are we so far?
Economics predicts rational choices
Obey the law of contradiction
Peoples choices ar
What kinds of things do we know? Is all memory the same? Types of memory systems Semantic and episodic memory.
Types of things we know
Is there just one memory system?
Are all of these types of memory the same? How do you learn a new skil
Fundamentals of Cognitive Psychology
Chapter 10 Reasoning and Decision Making
Valid deductive conclusions necessarily follow from the premises. All A are B (All professors are birds) All B are C (All birds are aliens) All A are C (Al
Uses of memory
Eyewitness testimony Metacognition and source memory Flashbulb memories
Fallibility of memory
Memory is often a side-effect of comprehension
Remembering something for later is not the goal
Some situations assume accuracy
Scripts and Schemas
What is a schema? How are they set up? How do schemas affect memory?
A common situation
Violations to Schema
How would this work?
So what is a schema?
So far, memory has had little organization Some relations among concepts
More on Perceptual Attention
Location of Attentional Limits Repetition blindness and the attentional blink.
You are sitting in class listening to a lecture Two people behind you are talking
How do you manage to attend to the lecture, but no
Using background knowledge Analogical problem solving and access Case-based reasoning
When is a problem not a problem?
Solving the 9-dot problem
You just saw this last class You can just retrieve the solution
Problems are only problems
What is Cognitive Psychology? How do we study cognition? What is an explanation?
Levels of explanation
What is Cognitive Psychology?
The study of human thought
What are the abilities common to all people? What do these abilities tell us ab
Low level learning
What is low-level learning? Habituation Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Who cares?
We often set out to learn things.
This class, for example
Much learning occurs even when we do not intend to learn.
What is attention? Why are there limits in processing Five functions of attention
What is attention?
How is the word used? Examples
Something fluttering caught my attention I didnt see you, I was paying attention to the game. I struggled to p
Basic memory (cont.)
Forgetting: What is it? How can memory be modeled? Connectionist models
What does it mean to forget?
When do we talk about forgetting?
Forgetting someones name
May know that you knew it at one point
Realizing when you get home th
Making judgments Judgment Heuristics
Often we must make predictions when making decisions
How likely is a particular option to work out? How often does an event occur.
There are a number of heuristics w
Outline for the next 2 lectures:
What is perception for? Aspects of perception Low-level perception Constraints Mid-level vision: Gestalt organization Perception and the brain
What is perception?
Somehow we must connect to the world There ar