1. Marshall McLuhan believed that media should be understood ecologically
in technology alter the symbolic environmentthe socially constructed,
sensory world of meanings that in turn shapes our perceptions,
1. The original agenda: not what to think, but what to think about.
1. Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw regard Watergate as a perfect example of the
agenda-setting function of the mass media.
believe that the mass media have the ability to transfer
1. George Gerbner argued that heavy television viewing creates an exaggerated belief in a
mean and scary world.
2. Gerbner emphasized the symbolic content of television drama.
3. Television has surpassed religion as the key storyteller in
1. People make daily choices to consume different types of media.
2. The theory attempts to make sense of the fact that people
consume an array of media messages for all sorts of reasons, and the
effect of a given message is unlikely the
1. The goal of semiotics is interpreting both verbal and nonverbal signs.
2. Roland Barthes held the Chair of Literary Semiology at the College of France.
3. In Mythologies, he sought to decipher the cultural meaning of visual signs, part
1. Introduction - Critical theorists such as Stuart
Hall question the scientific focus of mainstream communication research
on media influence.
2. Cultural studies versus media studies: An ideological difference.
1. Hall believes that the media function t
claimed that when two people from different ethic or cultural groups
interact, they tend to accommodate each other in the way they speak in
order to gain the others approval.
2. He focused on nonverbal adjustments.
3. Speech acco
1. Stella Ting-Toomeys face-negotiation theory helps to explain cultural differences in
response to conflict.
2. A basic assumption is that all people negotiate face.
1. Face is a metaphor for our public self-image.
1. This chapter seeks to integrate the material.
2. Griffin indentifies 10 recurring principles that in one form or another appear in multiple
3. A thread must meet three principles.
1. It must be a significant feature in at lea
1. To Cheris Kramarae, language is a man-made construction.
2. Womens words and thoughts are discounted in our society.
3. When women try to overcome this inequity, the masculine control of communication
places them at a disadvantage.
1. A standpoint is a place from which to view the world that determines what we focus on as
well as what is obscured from us.
2. Sandra Harding and Julia Wood claim that the social groups to which we belong shape
what we know and how we c
1. Gerry Philipsen was influenced by linguist and anthropologist Dell Hymes.
2. He spent three years analyzing the speech code of Teamsterville.
speech code is a system of socially constructed symbols and meanings,
premises, and rule
1. Deborah Tannen argues that male-female communication is cross-cultural.
between men and women is both common and insidious because the parties
usually dont realize that the encounters are cross-cultural.