Anatomy of prokaryotic and eukaryotic
cells (part 2)
Categorizes bacteria into two
fundamentally different groups: grampositive or gram-negative
o Gram-positive bacteria have thick,
multi-layer cell walls and no outer
Energy production: oxidation-reduction reactions
Oxidation: removal of electrons
Reduction: gain of electrons
Redox reaction: an oxidation reaction paired with
In biological systems, the electrons are often
Microbial metabolism (Part 1) Catabolic and Anabolic Reactions and Action of Enzymatic
Catabolic and anabolic reactions
Metabolism: the sum of the chemical reactions in an organism
The role of ATP in coupling anabolic and catabolic reactions
Lecture 2 anatomy of prokaryotic cells (part 1)
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Compare and contrast the overall cell structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes
o What do they have in common?
o What distinguishes them from each other?
Microbiology in the News
Zika virus outbreak in Brazil
o Relationship, to microcephaly (coincidental? Causal?)
o Modes of transmission?
o What can cases returning to northern hemisphere tell us?
o Other Aedes aegypti transmitted diseases
Increase in number of cells, not cell size
Requirements for growth can be divided among physical and chemical requirements
The requirements for Growth
You have a culture of bacteria in which cells are actively expressing genes and synthesizing
enzymes, but cells are not dividing. This culture is most likely in _ phase.
During which phase of growth are bacteria most susceptible to antibiotic
Which of the following stains is/are considered differential?
The order of reagents in the Gram stain reaction are.
All of the following are diameters of cells that would be resolved in a microscope with a 0.2 m
limit of resolution except.
The purpose of
There are _ codons to code for the 20 possible amino acids.
Know the function of Inducible, constitutive, and repressible enzymes
The genetic code has more than one codon for some amino acids. This is an example of
Gene regulation may entail
All of the following are monosaccharides except.
phospholipids are nonpolar molecules (t/f)
The components of fats are fatty acids and.
the building blocks of an enzyme are.
Which pertains to DNA but not to RNA?
polymers are chains of repeating
The end of
To study the phylogeny of eukaryotes, what rRNA is used?
Why might it be easier to determine the bacterium that caused pneumonia than one that caused
a wound infection?
Describe serological methods
Disagreements between conclusions obtained from rDNA data
The mechanism by which genes are transferred into bacteria via viruses is called
A prototroph can grow on glucose-salts media.
Which is not true about mismatch repair?
Transposons can cause mutations by _.
The Ames test is useful as a rapid screening test
Free-floating, photosynthetic organisms found in marine environments are.
Slime molds and water molds are types of fungi. (t/f)
In the late nineteenth century, immigration from Ireland to the United States occurred in high
numbers due to an infection of p
Reticulate and elementary bodies are two forms of.
Define Helicobacter pylori
lactobacilli, in their role as normal flora of the vagina, help the vagina resist infection by
The earliest oxygenic phototrophs are thought
A specimen from a vaginal sample is subjected to polymerase chain reaction. Primers specific
for a gene in the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae are used in the reaction, and an amplified
DNA product is visualized on an agarose gel. This can lead a physicia
1. Streptococcus composed of gram positive, catalasenegative
2. The Streptex Rapid Test kit has six different antibody
a. is an exoenzyme: enzyme secrete by cell that acts on substrate
1. Citrate test used to differentiate members of Enterobacteriacea which are all
1. Flavoprotein: carriermoleculeinelectrontransportchainthatcanbypassthe
next carrier in the chain and transfer electrons directly to oxygen (the final
3. Streak plate: isolation technique in which bacterial sample is streaked over
1. Contrast is the third important feature of a microscope along w/resolution and
a. ex: Bacillus subtilis, E. coli, Rhodospirillum rubrum, & Lactobcil
Test 4 Part 5
1. Respiratory tract diseases
a. Divided into upper and lower regions; sinus cavities included in upper
a.i. Diseases have specific tropisms to each area
b. Upper respiratory tract diseases
Pharyngitis inflammation of mucous membranes