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A P P E N D I X
C
Mechanics of Materials
APPENDIX OBJECTIVES
After you read, discuss, study, and apply ideas in this appendix, you will:
1. Understand the basic relationships between stress and strain
2. Be able to determine the principal
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7.5
Picbasic Pro
279
my_byte.3 1 would set bit 3 in my_byte to 1 and my_array[9].7 0 would set the
MSB of the last element of my_array to 0. All bits within a variable can be set by
assigning a value or expression to the variable with an
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7.10
Practical Considerations
335
' Turn off the diagnostic LED
High led
' Wait to ensure the PIC16F88 is initialized
PAUSE 500
' Initialize I/O signals
High enc_oe
' disable encoder output
Low enc_sel
' select the encoder counter high by
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7.4
Programming a PIC
269
PIC16F84 are listed in Table 7.2. Each command consists of a name called the
mnemonic and, where appropriate, a list of operands. Values must be provided for
each of these operands. The letters f, d, b, and k cor
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9.2
Position and Speed Measurement
383
CLASS DISCUSSION ITEM 9.3
LVDT Signal Filtering
Given the spectrum of a time-varying core displacement, what effect does the
choice of the primary excitation frequency have, and how should the low-p
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5.6 Noninverting Amplifier
169
Vin
t
Vout
t
Figure 5.9 Illustration of inversion.
Therefore, the voltage gain of the amplifier is determined simply by the external
resistors RF and R, and it is always negative. The reason this circuit is
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Questions and Exercises
157
c. Assuming the signal is being measured by a measurement system with the frequency response curve shown in Question 4.10, plot the spectrum of
the resulting output of the system.
4.12. Determine and plot the f
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8.2 Quantizing Theory
351
many more video demonstrations of various music, sound, and vibration concepts,
see Internet Link 8.2.
8.2
Video Demo
QUANTIZING THEORY
Now we look at the process required to change a sampled analog voltage into
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10.6 Stepper Motors
457
Table 10.1 Unipolar full-step phase sequence
Step
1
2
3
4
CW
1
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
2
ON
OFF
OFF
ON
CCW
3
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
4
OFF
ON
ON
OFF
Table 10.2 Unipolar half-step phase sequence
1
2
3
4
1
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
1.5
ON
OFF
OFF
O
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4.4 Bandwidth and Frequency Response
127
where i is the frequency component number. For example, for i = 2 corresponding to
frequency 20,
A' = (Aout Ain)2 A2 = 0.25A2
2
(4.24)
Applying Equation 4.23 to each frequency component results in
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9.3
Stress and Strain Measurement
397
where Vex is the DC voltage applied to the bridge called the excitation voltage. Substituting these expressions into Equation 9.14 and rearranging gives
R2
R1
- = -R4
R3
(9.17)
If we know R2 and R3 ac
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10.7 Selecting a Motor
torque
motor
torque-speed
curve
467
operating
point
operating
speed
load
line
speed
Figure 10.33 Motor operating speed.
Is the motor torque-speed curve well matched to the load? If the load has
a well-defined torque
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A.1
Systems of Units
527
CLASS DISCUSSION ITEM A.2
Common Use of SI Prefixes
For each of the prefixes listed in Table A.4, think of or research an example of a measurable physical quantity for which the prefix is commonly used to express
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3.3
Junction Diode
Zener Regulation Performance
83
EXAMPLE 3.2
We wish to determine the regulation performance of the zener diode circuit shown in
Figure 3.8 for a voltage source Vin whose value ranges between 20 and 30 V. For the zener
d
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5.11 Differentiator
of C is large at low frequencies. At very high frequencies (i.e., 1/R1C), the
output is attenuated to zero because the feedback loop is effectively a short. Lab
Exercise 6 explores and Video Demo 5.5 demonstrates how t
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Questions and Exercises
6.13.1
249
IEEE Standard Digital Symbols
The IEEE standard symbols for illustrating digital input and output conditions are
shown in Figure 6.46. When drawing or reading digital schematics, it is important to
recog
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4.10 Second-Order System
4.10.2
143
Frequency Response of a System
To determine the frequency response of a linear system, we apply a sinusoidal input
and determine the output response for different input frequencies. For the secondorder
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2.2
Basic Electrical Elements
21
magnetic flux
I
N
+
V
S
Figure 2.12 Inductor flux linkage.
field lines, shown with arrowheads in the figure, is found using the right-hand rule
for a coil. The rule states that, if you curl the fingers of
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11.3 Introduction to Control Theory
493
where I0 0 and t is the cycle time of the control loop. The derivative can be
approximated with a finite difference approximation. For example,
Di = (ei e i-1) / t
(11.13)
Although, a digital filter
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11.2 Control Architectures
479
3. Understand the basic principles of feedback control systems
4. Appreciate the variety of designs that can result from limited specifications of
a mechatronic system
5. Understand the basics of programmabl
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11.4 Case Study 1Myoelectrically Controlled Robotic Arm
9.
503
Write the code
PICs are 8-bit processors, and, as such, any integer value over 8 bits (255) must be
stored in two or more registers. Because the PIC16F819 performs 10 bit A/D
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8.4 Digital-to-Analog Conversion
361
CLASS DISCUSSION ITEM 8.5
Bipolar 4-Bit D/A Converter
If Vs 10 V and the ground reference is replaced by a10 V reference, what output voltage would correspond to each possible binary input applied to
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10.5 DC Motors
445
10.5.2 Permanent Magnet DC Motor Dynamic Equations
Since the permanent magnet DC motor is so important and is the easiest to understand and analyze, we look at its governing equations in more detail. Due to the
interact
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6.9
S
Q
R
217
Q
S
CK
Flip-Flops
CK
Q
Q
R
(a) positive edge-triggered
(b) negative edge-triggered
Figure 6.8 Edge-triggered RS flip-flops.
The truth table for a positive edge-triggered RS flip-flop (Figure 6.8a) is given
in Table 6.5. The
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11.5 Case Study 2Mechatronic Design of a Coin Counter
513
(b) second half of circuit
Figure 11.26 (continued)
alc80237_ch11_478-522.indd 513
10/01/11 8:27 PM
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514
C H A P T E R 11 Mechatronic SystemsControl Architectures a
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6.10 Applications of Flip-Flops
225
parallel output
P0
serial
input
(Sin )
clock
P1
P2
P3
D Q
CK
D Q
CK
D Q
CK
D Q
CK
CLR
CLR
CLR
CLR
reset
Figure 6.20 Serial-to-parallel converter.
parallel input
P0
P1
P2
P3
load
0
J
PS
Q
CK
1
K
Q
CLR
PS
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2.3
I
Kirchhoffs Laws
27
A
I1
I2
+
+
+
Vs
R1
R2
Figure 2.16 Parallel resistance circuit.
A single resistor with a conductance of value (G1 G2) would have given the same
result; therefore, conductances in parallel add. We can write Equatio
Rev. Confirming Pages
3.4 Bipolar Junction Transistor
97
current drops. This effect is called emitter degeneration. The reason for this is that
the base current adds to the collector current, causing an increase in the emitter current (IE IB IC), creating
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Questions and Exercises
Section 3.5
115
Field-Effect Transistors
3.22. For the MOSFET used in the experiment of Figure 3.31, estimate the fully-on drainto-source resistance Ron from the values in the plot.
3.23. Answer Question 3.20 using