470
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
B.1.1.8 Edge Preparation
The eighth position shall be a letter. It shall define special conditions, such as edge
treatment and surface finish, as shown in Table B.8. Figure B.3 shows the direction
of m

3 Fundamentals of the Selection of Cutting Tool Geometry Parameters
169
Fig. 3.38. Influence of the cutting edge radius on the CCR (work material steel AISI 1020,
tool material P20, tool cutting edge angle 60o, inclination angle 0o normal rake angle
10o,

480
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
Table B.17. Symbols for reference (5)
Type
Number symbol
I II
Equilateral
inserts
In countries using the metric system, choose the values of the side
length as the symbol of designation and disregard a

370
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
5.6.3 Geometry of Major Flanks
The flank angle affects many facets of drilling and drill working conditions starting
from the interference of the drills flank surfaces with the bottom of the hole being

42
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
z = ln t , x = ln b , y = ln L
(1.36)
As shown by Astakhov [14], in orthogonal cutting, the direction of the principal
stress coincides with the introduced coordinate system. Then, Eq. 1.34 could be re

3 Fundamentals of the Selection of Cutting Tool Geometry Parameters
129
Little attention is paid to the selection of the machining regime for the study
(assessment) of a given tool geometry. The cutting feed is routinely selected to be
of the same level a

4 Straight Flute and Twist Drills
271
Flank face having the normal flank angle n is applied to cutting edge 12.
Normally, this angle varies over cutting edge 12.
Normal rake angle n1-2 (defined in the sense shown in Fig. 4.74, SECTION
AA1 and SECTION AA2)

432
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
Fig. 5.81. Wear curves for the outer and inner cutting edges
Fig. 5.82. Influence of the location distances of: (a) the outer, cpt1, and (b) the inner, cpt2
cutting edges on tool life
Location distance

414
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
Fig. 5.64. Visualization of the outlet section of the side passage
Known Designs
The flank (clearance) surfaces should assure drill free penetration into the
workpiece. In other words, there should be

4 Straight Flute and Twist Drills
321
The foregoing analysis reveals that the distribution of the flank angle along the
cutting edge 12 in cone grinding depends on the grinding parameters so that it is
insufficient to indicate the T-hand-S flank angle at

448
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
A.2.2 Cutting Speed in Turning and Boring
In any machining operation, the cutting speed is the rate at which the workpiece
surface is passed by the cutting edge. It is measured in meters per minute, or

4 Straight Flute and Twist Drills
245
improve chip transportation in the flutes. The profile of a drill should be designed
in such a way that the flutes provide the maximum space for the chip and facilitate
chip removal while ensuring that the drill is ca

Appendix C: Basics of Vector Analysis
501
Example C.1.
Problem: Point A mentioned above has coordinates (2,3) and point B has
coordinates (7,6) as seen in Fig. C.1. Find the size and position of the vector AB.
Solution: The size of this vector in the x-di

376
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
vu r = vw r u r
(5.35)
where angle ur calculates as
u r = arctan
vs
nf
0.5 f
= arctan
= arctan
vr
2 Rr n
R
( rp ) cos r
(5.36)
where n is the rotational speed (r.p.m) of the drill (spindle), f is th

354
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
5.5.2 System Considerations
5.5.2.1 Gundrilling System
Although the following section discusses the system approach to gundrilling, its
main ideas are fully applicable to any cutting tool and tooling.

342
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
tolerances. It is possible due to the fact that a group of special tools, called selfpiloting tools (hereafter SPT), are normally used in deep hole machining when the
quality requirement are high and w

0.0025
20h6
A
1301.5
O.A.L.
4-PLC'S ON
14.48 DIA
0.8+0.1
-0.2
O.D. RELIF PER
SIDE
0.6
0.15-0.25
DETAIL II
ENLARGED
B
+0.013
17 -0.033
DET. III
SHIPPING
LASER ETCH IN
THIS AREA p. 7
B
50.720.13
72.51.5 (FLUTE LEN.)
252
8+1
1+0.2
600.5
0.02 A
2.18
5.79
REF.

466
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
Table B.3. Letters for tolerances
Rectangles or Parallelograms
On rectangle and parallelogram inserts, the width and length dimensions are used
in place of the I.C. A two-digit number is necessary beca

398
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
inner, outer, and side cutting edges) surfaces as well as on the supporting pads. The
higher the MWF pressure, the higher tool life. This constitutes Rule No.3 in drill
design. High MWF pressure in the

Appendix D: Hydraulic Losses: Basics and Gundrill Specifics
521
velocity, diameter, density, viscosity and pipe surface roughness. For smooth
laminar and turbulent flow in circular ducts, this friction factor is a function of
Reynolds number Re only. It c

374
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
Vector vr in the direction of rotation velocity of point r
Vector mnr in the direction of intersection of the orthogonal plane Po and
plane G with the sense as it shown in Fig. 5.28
Vector mfr in the d

4 Straight Flute and Twist Drills
231
which is formed in the central portion of the hill along the main flute 3 in a
predetermined axial range from the tip of twist drill. As a result, the cross-sectional
area of the flute is increased. Because the subflu

450
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
A.2.6 Resultant Motion
Because the cutting speed and feed rate are velocities, they can be characterized by
their magnitudes and directions, i.e., by vectors. Summation of these vectors gives
the direc

3 Fundamentals of the Selection of Cutting Tool Geometry Parameters
187
The test results showed the following. Compared to the standard tool, tool life
when the tool with the effective rake angle was used increased: for 303 and 4349
steels by more that 50

482
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
Number of letter symbol
1)
If the inserts have rounded corners, the symbol of designation is represented:
a) In countries using the metric system, the values of the corner radius given in 0.1
mm; if th

412
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
1000
100
50
10
IT9 tolerance
Diametric deviation (m)
200
Feed
0.08 mm/rev
0.12 mm/rev
Ordinary
Newly designed
0
5
10
20
100
Clearance in bushing (m)
500
Fig. 5.61. Effect of the clearance between the s

384
Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
The T-mach-S flank angle vwr
(
vw ( R pr ) = arctan tan f r cos ad p ( R pr ) + tan p 23 sin ad p ( R pr )
)
where 0.05 R pr md
angle ur calculates as
u ( Rrp ) = arctan
vs
0.5 f
nf
= arctan
= arctan

Appendix C: Basics of Vector Analysis
503
C.2.2 Basic Vector Operations
Basic vector operations are: (1) resolution into components (addition and
subtraction), (2) scalar (dot) product, and (3) vector (cross) product. Although
these basic operations are w