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Appendix A
Page 564
A Guide for Technical Writing
technical reporting formats. The major headings, such as Abstract and Introduction, are typical, but are
not meant to be exclusive.
Abstract
Effective technical communicatio

290 Flat~Plntc Collectors
6.16 COLLECTOR CEARACTERIZATIONS
of runny days. and calculated and measured performance agreed within approximately
13% before effects of dust and shading were taken into account.
'lhbor U953) modiﬁed the Hostel nnd Woertz‘loss C

‘ /
collector with normal glass. For a collector with low-iron (water-white) glass, (mount-id
(7a) are nearly identical. /
A general analysis for a cover system of 11 identical plates yields
(m). = (m) + (1 — r.) 2‘, no” (6.10.31
i=1
where a! is the ratio

332 Concentrathtg Collectors . t 7.3 "that-mu! Performance of Concentrating Collectors 333
evacuated. The wind speed is 5 m/s and the sky and air temperatures are 2 and [0° " 135,7
mmtivety C’ ll“. UL # “——-—-——-——— = 3.82 mea °C
. at X 0.06 X ] X (473.0

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Chapter 8
Page 366
Temperature Measurements
4. Temperature Measurement, Supplement to American Society of Mechanical Engineers PTC
19.3, 1974.
5. Benedict, R. P., Fundamentals of Temperature, Pressure, and Flow Measurements, 3

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Page 375
Chapter
9
Pressure and Velocity Measurements
9.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter introduces methods to measure the pressure and the velocity within uids. Instruments
and procedures for establishing known values of pressure for

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Page 339
8.5
339
Thermoelectric Temperature Measurement
Table 8.5 Standard Thermocouple Compositionsa
Wire
Type
Positive
Negative
Expected Systematic Uncertainty
S
Platinum
Platinum/10% rhodium
R
Platinum
Platinum/13% rhodium
B
P

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Page 327
8.4
Electrical Resistance Thermometry
327
Example 8.5
The material constant b is to be determined for a particular thermistor using the circuit shown in
Figure 8.10a. The thermistor has a resistance of 60 kV at 25 C. The

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Page 381
9.3
p1
Pressure Reference Instruments
381
p2
x
H
m
Figure 9.5 U-tube manometer.
available, allowing measurements ranging from the order of 0.001 mm of manometer uid to several
meters.
The U-tube manometer in Figure 9.5 co

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14:36:26
Chapter 5
Page 174
Uncertainty Analysis
and the uncertainty in R is found from
u R f 1 u x1 ; u x2 ; . . . ; uxL
5:13
In Equation 5.13, each uxi ; i 1; 2; . . . ; L represents the uncertainty associated with the best
estimate

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Page 147
4.7
Data Outlier Detection
147
The polynomial is transformed back to the form E a bU m :
E 3:19 0:30 U 0:43
V
The curve t with its 95% condence interval is shown on Figure 4.11.
COMMENT In the present example, the interce

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4.21
4.22
4.23
14:7:49
Page 156
Chapter 4
Probability and Statistics
Compare the reduction in the possible range of random error in estimating x 0 by taking a sample of 16
measurements as opposed to only four measurements. Then compar

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14:7:44
Chapter 4
Page 144
Probability and Statistics
Linear Polynomials
For linear polynomials a correlation coefcient r can be found by
r rxy
N
N
N
P
P P
N xi yi xi yi
i1
i1
i1
ss
N 2
N 2
N
N
P
P
P
P
N x2
N y2
xi
yi
i
i
i1
i1
i

302
Flat-Plate Coileclum
027
0.1-
m.- ‘_L._._Lr._
two 0.05“ A H om I 0.15
tn,- ratr GTC‘C‘mZIW)
Figure 6.13.2 Characteristics of ﬁve collectors: (a) one-cover liquid heater with sclectlve ab. 2
starter: (b) one-cover liquid heater with moderately se

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6.25
11:55:9
Chapter 6
Page 258
Analog Electrical Devices and Measurements
What internal impedance is needed for the bridge circuit of Figure 6.18 for the loading error to be
under 1% if the bridge resistances change by
dR1 40 V
6.26

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A.1
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
A Guide for Technical Writing
567
(c) If you are certain that y 0 when x 0, put the curve through the origin. But if you are uncertain,
dont use the origin; stop the line at the lowest point (see 3b)

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13:54:15
Page 552
Chapter 12
Mechatronics: Sensors, Actuators, and Controls
Qloss
set
+
set
m
E
P
I
s
Figure 12.54 Block diagram for PI control of an oven.
u1
Once again we impose a step change in the set-point temperature so that Qse

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Page 579
Glossary
coupled system The combined effect of interconnected
instruments used to form a measurement system.
critical pressure ratio The pressure ratio necessary to
accelerate a uid to a velocity equal to its speed of

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7.9
Digital InputOutput Communication
297
activities and sequences all communications to and between devices, such as which bus device
transmits or receives and when. This is done along the bus management and handshaking

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12.4
Controls
549
it is clear that this represents the response of a rst-order system having a time constant of
mc
t
12:42
UAs kp km
The analysis for this step change is best accomplished by using Laplace transforms.
Lap

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Page 537
12.3
Actuators
537
Plunger
C-frame
Coil
Figure 12.35 Construction of a solenoid linear actuator.
where
F force on plunger
N number of turns of wire in the electromagnetic
I current
m magnetic permeability of air (4p 107H

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Page 309
Chapter
8
Temperature Measurements
8.1 INTRODUCTION
Temperature is one of the most commonly used and measured engineering variables. Much of our
lives is affected by the diurnal and seasonal variations in ambient tempera

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Page 543
12.4
Control action
Controls
543
Controller
Water source
Flow meter
Gate valve
Figure 12.44 Flow rate
control system.
Many control systems are designed to maintain a specied set point without a dead band;
clearly this is

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Page 273
7.5
273
Voltage Measurements
R
MSB
2R
Rr
4R
Eref
.
+
Eo
8R
.
.
.
2 M 1R
LSB
Figure 7.6 Digital-to-analog
converter.
Note that this is equivalent to an operation in which an M-bit D/A converter would compare the
magnitude

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Chapter 7
Page 282
Sampling, Digital Devices, and Data Acquisition
which shows how these combinations correspond to the 22 possible values of a 2-bit binary output.
Logic circuits transfer this information to a register.
Beca

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Chapter 7
Page 264
Sampling, Digital Devices, and Data Acquisition
for r 0, 1, . . . , N1 can be rewritten as
fyrdtg
h
i
nm
C n sin 2p nf
rdt fn f
dt
n1
1
X
7:8
and so it displays the same aliasing phenomenon shown in Equ

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Page 249
6.8
Analog Signal Conditioning: Filters
249
C2
Ei
R1
R2
+
Eo
C1
(a) Low-Pass Filter
R2
C
C
Ei
+
Eo
R1
Figure 6.36 SallenKey unit-gain lter. (a) Low pass.
(b) High pass.
(b) High-Pass Filter
with static sensitivity (or gai