72
Chapter 3 / Structures of Metals and Ceramics
3.55 (a) Convert the [100] and [111] directions
into the four-index MillerBravais scheme
for hexagonal unit cells.
(b) Make the same conversion for the (010)
and (101) planes.
3.58 Determine the Miller indi

General introduction
Materials are evolving today faster than at any time in history. Industrial nations
regard the development of new and improved materials as an underpinning technology one which can stimulate innovation in all branches of engineering,

The structure of polymers
229
Fig. 22.1. (a) The ethylene molecule or monomer; (b) the monomer in the activated state, ready to
polymerise with others; (c)(f) the ethylene polymer (polyethylene); the chain length is limited by the
addition of terminators

Case studies in phase transformations
91
This is an example of heterogeneous nucleation. The good matching between ice
and silver iodide means that the interface between them has a low energy: the contact
angle is very small and the undercooling needed to

Steels: II alloy steels
129
metalworking tools, and the resulting drop in hardness will destroy the cutting edge.
The problem can be overcome by using low cutting speeds and spraying the tool with
cutting fluid. But this is an expensive solution slow cutt

The mechanical properties of ceramics
177
Chapter 17
The mechanical properties of ceramics
Introduction
A Ming vase could, one would hope, perform its primary function that of pleasing
the eye without being subjected to much stress. Much glassware, vitreo

Ceramics and glasses
165
like any other ceramic; and the criteria used in design with stone are the same. One
natural ceramic, however, is unique. Ice forms on the Earths surface in enormous
volumes: the Antarctic ice cap, for instance, is up to 3 km thic

The light alloys
107
Fig. 10.6. Stages in the precipitation of CuAl2. Disc-shaped GP zones (b) nucleate homogeneously from
supersaturated solid solution (a). The disc faces are perfectly coherent with the matrix. The disc edges are
also coherent, but with

Design with materials
289
Chapter 27
Design with materials
Introduction
Design is an iterative process. You start with the definition of a function (a pen, a
hairdryer, a fuel pin for a nuclear reactor) and draw on your knowledge (the contents of
this boo

Production, forming and joining of ceramics
199
Fig. 19.7. A rotation viscometer. Rotating the inner cylinder shears the viscous glass. The torque (and thus
the shear stress ss) is measured for a given rotation rate (and thus shear strain rate g ).
Fig. 1

Equilibrium constitution and phase diagrams
31
Fig. 3.5. At 183C we have a three-phase mixture of L + (Sn) + (Pb). Their relative weights cant be found
from the phase diagram.
Fig. 3.6. (a) The coppernickel diagram is a good deal simpler than the leadtin

Composites: fibrous, particulate and foamed
269
Fig. 25.5. Composites fail in compression by kinking, at a load which is lower than that for failure in tension.
fibres) is obtained by chopping them to the length 2xc in the first place. The average
stress

Production, forming and joining of metals
153
Fig. 14.11. Typical data for recrystallised grain size as a function of prior plastic deformation. Note that,
below a critical deformation, there is not enough strain energy to nucleate the new strain-free gra

Case studies in design
301
Fig. 28.8. Exaggerated drawing of the deflections that occur in the loaded drum. The shaft deflects under
four-point loading. This in turn causes the end plates to deflect out of plane, creating tensile (+) and
compressive () st

Teaching yourself phase diagrams
353
Fig. A1.33.
Fig. A1.34. Dendrites of silver in a coppersilver eutectic matrix, 330. (After G. A. Chadwick, Metallography
of Phase Transformations, Butterworth, 1972.)
The rejected silicon accumulates in a layer just ah

Teaching yourself phase diagrams
325
Questions
1.8 In the example above:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
How many phases are present at 500C?
How many phases after slow cooling to 20C?
How many phases after quenching to 20C?
How many phases after quenching and ageing?

The statistics of brittle fracture and case study
189
If we insert this result into eqn. (18.7) we get
V m
Ps (V ) = exp
,
V0 0
(18.9)
or
m
ln Ps (V ) =
V
.
V0 0
This, then, is our final design equation. It shows how the survival probability dep

Steels: I carbon steels
121
Fig. 11.11. Mechanical properties of quenched-and-tempered steels. Compare with Fig. 11.7.
over-tempered, however, the Fe3C particles coarsen (they get larger and further apart)
and the hardness falls. Figure 11.11 shows the bi

Kinetics of structural change: III displacive transformations
81
Fig. 8.5. The diffusive f.c.c. b.c.c. transformation in iron: the timetemperaturetransformation (TTT)
diagram, or C-curve. The 1% and 99% curves represent, for all practical purposes, the st

Case studies in steels
141
Fig. 13.10. Austenitising a striking face.
Postscript
Although there is a British Standard for hammers, there is no legislation in the UK
which compels retailers to supply only standard hammers. It is, in fact, quite difficult
t

Mechanical behaviour of polymers
253
23.2 Explain how the modulus of a polymer depends on the following factors:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f )
temperature;
loading time;
fraction of covalent cross-links;
molecular orientation;
crystallinity;
degree of polymeri

Special topic: cements and concretes
213
Fig. 20.6. The modulus of concrete is very close to that given by simple composite theory (eqn. 20.11).
Fig. 20.7. The compressive crushing of a cement or concrete block.
When cement is made, it inevitably contains

Composites: fibrous, particulate and foamed
275
Fig. 25.12. When a plastic foam is compressed beyond the linear region, the cell walls bend plastically,
giving a long plateau exactly like that of Fig. 25.9.
Cellular materials can collapse by another mecha

Case studies in design
313
Fig. 28.17. A young child practises her violin.
Table 28.4. Some European string instruments
Violin family
Viol family
Guitar family
Harp family
Keyboard family
Violin
Viola
Cello
Double bass
Treble
Tenor
Bass
Guitar
Lute
Zither

The driving force for structural change
55
How large is the driving force for a typical coarsening process? If we put r1 = r2/2
in eqn. (5.31) we get A = 4 (0.17 r 22 ). If = 0.5 J m2 and r2 = 107 m our two
precipitates give us a free work of 1014 J, or a

Teaching yourself phase diagrams
339
The weight fractions of each phase, WLIQ and WSOL , are fixed by the requirement that
matter is conserved. Then:
The weight fraction of solid in the alloy is
5
4
4 the
and the weight fraction of liquid is 6 lever
4 rul

Kinetics of structural change: II nucleation
75
Problems
7.1 The temperature at which ice nuclei form homogeneously from under-cooled water
is 40C. Find r* given that = 25 mJ m2, H = 335 kJ kg1, and Tm = 273 K.
Estimate the number of H2O molecules needed

Teaching yourself phase diagrams
335
Fig. A1.11.
(a)
(b)
(c)
2.7 Figure A1.12 shows the phase diagram for ice. (The pressures are so large that
steam appears only at the extreme upper left.) There are eight different solid
phases of ice, each with a di