572 :
13.13
l3.14
13.15
13.16
13.17
13.18
Basic and Applied Hemodynamicr
The working ﬂuid is then expanded adiabatically and reversibly to the original
volume.
If the working ﬂuid is air and the maximum pressure and temperature are
respectively 6 MPa and

30’: Basic and Thermodynamic:
o 250 son ' moo
——-—-—n—p.,lrl11Hg
Fig. 2.2 Ideal gut temperature for steam point
T=273.1611mi
Pt
pI -) 0
= 273.161im 1’:
1
[Jr-)0
where 3 has been replaced by T to denote this particular temperature scale, the
ideal gas te

14 : Basic andAppt‘r‘ed Thermodynamics
. odourless ﬂuid that ﬂowed from a body of higher caloric to a body of lower
caloric. This was known as the caloric theory of heat, ﬁrst proposed in 1789 by
Antoine Lavoisier { 1 743—1 1’94). the father of modern che

26: Basic and Applicd Thermodynamics
9(X ) - 90’ )
= _l_1.
or 3 (X) XI _ X2 X (2.4)
If we assign an arbitrary number of degrees to the temperature interval
90(1) — 90(2), then 60’) can be calculated from the measurements of X, X,
and X2.
An easin reproduc

22:
Bart: and Applied Thermodynamics
PROBLEMS
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
A pump discharges a liquid into a drum at the rate of 0.0032 msfs. The drum.
1.50 m in diameter and 4.20 m in length. can hold 3000 kg of the liquid. Find the
density of the l

10 = Basic andAAob‘rd Thennodyimnicr
consideration, and 5F], is the component of ferce normal to «is (Fig. 1.13). the
pressure p at a point on the wall is deﬁned as
= lim 5F"
‘p rid—ram 5A
as
Fn
System
Fig. 1.13 Mitith qurmurr
The pressure p at a point

Content: : xv
16.4 Heat ofReaetion 648
16.5 Temperature Dependence of the Heat ofReaetiou 650
16.6 Temperature Dependence of the Equilibrium Constant 651
16.7 Thermal Ionization of a Monatomic Gas 651
16.8 Gibbs Function Change 653
16.9 Fugecity and Activ

T.
8.
0mm:
6.§_C1au.sins‘_StatcmenLo£theSecondLaL116
6.6 Refrigerator and Heat Pump 116
6.7 guivalence of Kelvin-Planck and Clausius Statements 1 19
6.8 Reversibility and Irreversibility 120
6.9 Causes of Irreversibility 121
6.10 Conditions for Reversibil

lnfon'nation contained in this work has been obtained by Tats
McGtaw-Hill. from sources believed to be reliable. However,
neither Tata McGraw—Hill not its authors guarantee the
nocuracy or completeness of any information published
herein, and neither Tat

680 = Bait: and Applied Thermodynamics
. V V
A , x = 3 andx= ‘ .,s‘ =0andn =0
Sam 3 v, +v‘ “ v, +v- mm "1 2
at e:
. v v
m = 1n v3 ’ v4 ‘ —lnxv’ -xv" Proved.
RT' v3+v4 173+!»4 3‘ 4‘
Example 16.6 For the dissociation of nitrogen tetraoxide according

34:" Basic and Applied Thermodynamic:
But if the bore is conical (Fig. Ex. 2.]b). mercury will fill up the volume
ACDB, which is less than half of the mercury volume at [00°C, i.e., volume
AEFB. Let I be the true temperature when mercury rises half the le

2 : Basic ana'Appfied Hemodynamirt
of matter. All the results of classical or macroscopic thermodynamics can.
however, be derived from the microscopic and statistical study of matter.
1.2 Thermodynamic System and Control Volume
A thermodynamic system is d

Rzﬁignatian Quiz: : 579 "'
In these two examples it is observed that the refrigeration effect has been
accomplished by non-cyclic processes. 0f greater importance, however. are the
methods in which the cooling substance is not consumed and discarded, but

600 = Bari: mWed Warrior
and the energy balance gives
my n’rrh, —(n'n — one, = 0
’51012— hr)‘ I"z'fUlr' hr) = 0
=ﬂ= "2 4'1
Y ’5' “'15-’37
r= 27: (14.6)
7'
No yield is thus possible unless it, is greater than 1:2. The energy balance for
the compressor

50 = Barr's «MW Wanna-.3
Boundary
Fig. 3.17 Fm expansion
3.6 Net Work Done by a System
Often different forms of a work transfer occur simultaneously during a process
executed by a system. When all these work interactions have been evaluated,
the total o

38 : Bari: anddﬁﬁlied Thermodynamic:
the surroundings. When the fan is replaced by a pulley and a weight. as Show
in Fig. 3.2, the weight may be raised with the pulley driven by the motor. The
sole effect on things external to the system is then the raisi

Work and Heat Thian ': 55
Example 3.2 When the value of the evacuated bottle (Fig. Ex. 3.2) is opened,
atmospheric air rushes into it. If the atmospheric pressure is 101.325 kPa, and
0.6 m of air (measured at atmospheric conditions) enters into the bottle

42 : Basic anddppiizd Thermodynamics
(d) Process in which pV“ = C. where n is a constant (Fig. 3.10).
an=pl V1" 2p; Vzn= C
={PIVI")
P V1
V2
W12=iPdV
V1
V I1
ﬂip“: dV
V1 V
r
“ V—rnl 2
= V
(pl l)[_n+l]yl
I-n
n-la’n
= plvl 'ngz = W. 1_[&] (3.7)
11—

18 = Basic and Applied Hmadjnamirr
clear formulation of the conservation of energy principle. Camot‘s ﬁrst
conclusion was then called the second law of thermodynamics by Clausius, and
Thomson used Camot‘s second conclusion to develop the concept of absolu

46:
Basic andAp‘oltkd Warner's:
which gets Stirred. Since the volume of the system remains constant, I pdV= 0.
If m is the mass of the weight lowered through a distance dz and T is the torque
transmitted by the shaft in rotating through an angle :19. the

920:
22.10
2211
ZZIZ
2213
22.14
22.15
Basic and Applied Works
Positive ions of nitrogen are subjected to an electric ﬁeld of 106 voltsim. The
ions move through nitrogen at 1 am, 300 K. Calculate the average driﬁ
velocity of the ions and compare this veloc

713 = 3m admitted Thermodynamic:
a an" 10234
p, =1.447 x 0.13 = 0.26 MPa
T2=l.lll><310-344.4K=7l.3°C Ans.
Impulse ﬁtnction at inlet
F1 =P1AI+PIA1 vi
1 2
= A l+_—V
P1 1[ R]; I]
=P1A1 (1 + YMi)
= 0.13 3-110J x 011(1 + 1.4 x 0.762)
=35.82kN
Internal thrust t

Who) of Thermodynamics ‘: 119
A 1 kW electric heater can give 1 kW of heat at steady state and nothing more.
In other words, 1 kW of work (high grade energy) dissipates to give 1 kW ofheat
(low grade energy), which is thermodynamically inefﬁcient.
However

Second Law gtmermodynemlcr = 115
Figure 6.4 shows a cyclic heat engine exchanging heat with a source and a sink
and delivering Wm in a cycle to an MER.
(Source)
Fig. 6.4 ert‘r ﬁrst engine (CHE) with room and sink
6.4 Kelvin-Planck Statement of Second La

Second Law of
Thermodynamics
6.1 Qualitative Difference between Heat and Work
The ﬁrst law of thermodynamics states that a certain energy balance will hold
when a system undergoes a change of state or a thermodynamic process. But it
does not give any info

4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
4.1'lr
4.18
First Law offlime = 79
A mass of 3 kg gas expanchs within a ﬂexible container so that the p—v
relationship is ofthe form p0” = const. The initial pressure is 1000 kPa and the
initial volume is 1 mg. The ﬁnal pressure is 5 l

First Law Applied to How .Pt'occtser —= 107
PROBLEMS
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
A blower handles 1 kys of air at 20°C and consumes a power of I 5 WI. The inlet
and outlet velocities ofair are 100 mils and 150 mls respectively. Find the exit air
temperature. as

ScmdLaw ofﬂemodynemics :1 127
{a} A reversible isothermal process in which heat Q. enters the system at t]
reversibly from a constant temperature source at I. when the cylinder cover is in
contact with the diathermic coverA. The internal energy of the sys

First Law Applied to How Hm“ = 87
expense of its KB. Figure 5.4 shows a nozzle which is insulated. The steady flow
energy equation of the control surface gives
2 Q V2 (“V
+ —' + + d = + —2 + —-——’L
ll: zlg ] l'2 2 223 Elm
Fig. 5.4 Steadyﬂaw prom: involv