Social Stats Notes:
Chapter 2 Spring 2015.
Percentages allow standardization of raw data to a base of 100. This allows for easier
Percentage (%): (fin) X 100
n=total number of cases
o Percentages allow standardization of raw data to a
Ratios and Rates:
Ratios and rates are two additional ways that the distribution of
a variable can be summarized.
o Ratios are useful for comparing categories in terms
of relative frequency.
o Ratios are a precise measure of the relative frequency of
Chapter 3.2 notes
Interval/ratio level frequency distributions
o More complex because it usually involves a much larger
number of scores.
This requires collapsing the scores into categories
Must decide how many categories will be used
Social Statistic Review for Test 1:
1 and 2.
Before moving on to the problem set, you should
understand the following concepts from chapters 1 and 2
for exam #1.
o The scientific process: theories, hypotheses,
o The different ty
Social Stats 202
Notes and explanations.
The mean is the arithmetic average of the distribution
E(xj)=the summation of the scores
n= total number of cases
Characteristics of the mean
the mean balances all of the scores: if