Q. 35. Differentiate between Pure ALOHA and Slotted ALOHA using diagram.
Ans. A mathematical model can be created for the relationship between the number of frames
transmitted and the number of frames transmitted successfully. Let G represent the traffic
Q. 17 Do port addresses need to be unique Why and why not Why are port addresses
shorter than IP addresses?
Ans No, port addresses need not to be unique for different machines, but port addresses should
be unique for each application running on same compu
Q. 13. How does address resolution take place at the transport layer? Why is name
resolution important? (PTU, May 2010)
Ans. Address resolution is used: for finding or resolving the MAC address from IP address. For a
LAN each device has its own physical o
Q. 10. What is flooding? Distinguish between static and alternate routing in a circuit
Ans. Flooding : Flooding is a static algorithm in which every incoming packet is sent out an
every outgoing line except the line on which it has arri
Q. 12. Discuss elements of transport protocols. (PTU, May 2006)
Ans. In order to implement the transport layer services between the two transport entities. We
have to use a transport protocol. The transport protocols have to deal with the following tasks.
Q. 38. Compare IEEE Standard 802.4 and 802.5.
Differentiate between 802.3, 802.4 and 802.5 IEEE standard.
Q. 1. Define the term socket.
Ans. The communication structure that we need in socket programming is called as a socket. A
socket acts as an end point. A socket enables communication. Between a client and a server
process and may be connection oriented or
Q. 29. What is CSMA/CD
Ans. Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMAICD):
Whenever multiple users have unregulated access to a single line there is a danger of signals
overlapping and destroying each other
Such overlaps which turn the signa
POINTS TO REMEMBER
* Network layer is responsible for carrying the packet from the source all the way to destination
In short it is responsible for host-to-host delivery
* Network layer is used for performing functions such as internetworki
Q. 24.Draw and discuss the lP datagram frame format. Discuss in detail the various fields.
What is sub netting? (PTU, May 2008)
Explain in detail the different fields of IP header format. Also give the detail of IP
addresses. (PTU, Dec. 2009)
Ans. lP d
Q. 9. Define the term: Multimedia and WWW.
Ans. Multimedia :
Multimedia includes a combination of text, audio, still images, animation, video and interactivity
Multimedia is usually recorded and played, displayed or accessed by information
* The issue involved in security are privacy, authentication, integrity and non-repudiation
* Privacy is achieved through encryption of the plain test and decryption of the cipher text
* In secret key encryption, the sender and receiver
Q. 14. Explain in detail the design issues of transport layer protocols.
The transport layer is next to the network layer in OSI reference model from bottom.
The transport layer provides a high level of control for moving information between systems,
Q. 24. What is LMI?
Ans. LMI (Local Management Information) is a protocol added recently to the frame relay
protocol to provide more management features. LMI can provide
1. A keep aline mechanism to check if data is flowing.
2. A multicast mechanism to al
Q. 25 Write short note on Congestion control algorithms.
Write the general principles of congestion control .
What is congestion Explain the leaky bucket algorithm to control congestion.
Explain how the drawbacks of this are overcome in a token buck
Q. 19. How do Unix and windows trace route differ?
UNIX and Windows Trace Route Difference: Windows trace route is a utility that traces a
packet from your computer to an Internet host, showing how many hops the packet requires to
reach the host and
Q. 43 Compare between datagram and virtual circuit subnet ?
Ans Datagram :
Datagrams are packets of information that carry data between a source and a destination using
connectionless methods It includes the network address of the destination and can cros
Q. 42. What are different framing methods?
Ans. Framing Methods : Following methods are used for carrying out methods:
(i) Character count
(ii) Starting and ending characters with character stuffing
(iii) Starting and ending flags with bit stuffing
Q.16. Compare flow-based routing with distance vector routing.
Ans. Flow-Based Routing : This is static algorithm which uses topology and load conditions
(traffic) for deciding a route. As in fig., there is always a huge traffic from A to B. Then the
Q. 18. What is difference between open loop congestion control and closed loop congestion
Open Loop Congestion Control
Closed Loop Congestion Control
Open loop congestion control is based on
prevention of congestion
Closed loop congestion co
Q. 1. Define the concept of routing.
Ans. Routes are devices that connect two or more networks. They consist of a combination of
hardware and software.
The software in a router are the operating system and routing protocol. Management software
can also be
Q. 11. Explain how the connection Is managed in transport layer.
Ans. Connections are established in Transport Layer using three way handshake mechanism. To
establish a connection, one side, say the server, passively waits for an incoming connection by
Q. 9. Compare IEEE Standard 802.5 and 802.6.
Ans. IEEE standard 802.5 (Token ring) :
Whenever multiple users have unregulated access to a single line, there is a danger of signals
overlapping and destroying each other.
Such overlaps, which turn the signal
Q. 23. Write a short note on Network File Server and Directory Server.
Ans. File Server is a computer responsible for the central storage and management of data files
so that other computers on the same network can Access the files.
A file server allows t
Q. 26. Explain E-mail architecture and services.
Ans. Electronic Mail: One of the most popular network services is electronic mail (email).
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is the standard mechanism for electronic mail in the
internet; the first e-mai
Q. 22. Explain about multimedia.
Ans. Multimedia In general multimedia-includes a combination of text, audio, still images,
animation, video and interact content forms.
Multimedia is usually recorded and played displayed or accessed by information content
Q. 26. Give a short note on routing algorithms
Ans Routing Algorithms One of the important functions of the network layer is to route the
packets from the source machine to destination machine The major area of network layer design
includes the algorithms
With the link out of that node, we find a shortest path to the bottom node. Accordingly, we
unmark the link from the left middle node to the bottom node because we know that the link is
not on the shortest path to the bottom node.
In addition, we mark lik
Q. 27. What are the two main parts of an E-mail? Describe the addressing system
used by SMTR
Ans. Electronic Mail: One of the most popular network services is electronic mail (e mail).
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is the standard mechanism for ele