Physical Chemistry: Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics
CHM 306

Spring 2007
Brownian Motion, Diffusion and the Brownian Motor
CHM 306 April 23, 2007 David Grauer
Topics to be Discussed
Brownian Motion
History, Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics Feynman's Brownian Ratchet
Derivation of Frick's two Laws of Diffusio
Chapter 6
Chapter 6 describes the processes which lead to chemical equilibrium. From the
spontaneity criterion can be derived the Gibbs and Helmholtz energies, both of which are state
functions. These two functions give us the advantage of defining sponta
Chapter 5
Chapter 5 introduces the concept of entropy and its relationship to the second and third
laws of thermodynamics. The second and third laws explain why natural transformations, also
known as spontaneous processes, are likely to happen whereas unn
Chapter 7
Chapter 7 outlines the properties of real gases and how they differ from ideal gases.
Firstly, the ideal gas law assumes that gas molecules are point masses in reality, they occupy a
finite volume. Secondly, the law assumes no intermolecular int
Chapter 8
Chapter 8 deals with the three main phases, their stability, and phase diagrams. A phase
refers to a form of matter that is uniform with respect to chemical composition and state of
aggregation. Substances generally can have many solid phases (w
Chapter 10
Chapter 10 deals with electrolyte solutions, which differ from ideal and real solutions in
that the solutes exist as solvated positive and negative ions. The solvation shell is essential in
lowering the energy of the ions. Though energy is requ
Chapter 9
Chapter 9 addresses chemical solutions of both real and ideal nature. Raoults law, which
defines an ideal solution, states that the partial vapor pressure of each component of an ideal
mixture of liquids is equal to the vapor pressure of the pur
Chapter 11
Chapter 11 talks about electrochemical and electrical potentials and their applications in
electrochemical cells, including batteries and fuel cells. Two halfcells are combined to form an
electrochemical cell. The application of an electrical
Chapter 15
Chapter 15 addresses the subject of statistical thermodynamics. The average energy of an
ensemble unit is the total energy divided by the number of units in the ensemble. A twolevel
system involves an ensemble comprised of particles with two e
Chapter 13
Chapter 13 addresses the Boltzmann distribution and its application in thermodynamics.
The Boltzmann distribution allows one to determine the most probable energy distribution in a
chemical system. The most likely configurational outcome for a
Chapter 14
Chapter 14 deals with ensembles and molecular partition functions. An ensemble is a
large collection of identical units or replicas of a system. The average value for a property of the
ensemble corresponds to the timeaveraged value for the cor
Chapter 18
Chapter 18 addresses chemical kinetics. Chemical kinetics involves the study of the rates
and mechanisms of chemical reactions, and thus provides information on the timescale of
chemical reactions. By monitoring the rate at which chemical react
Chapter 4
Chapter 4 addresses thermochemistry, which deals with the heat flow into or out of a
system as a result of a chemical reaction, and seeks to determine the energy stored in chemical
bonds by doing so. Most of the enthalpy or internal energy of a
Chapter 3
Chapter 3 describes the importance of state functions, which are path independent. A
mathematical property of a state function is that the change in a state variable resulting from a
change in variables upon which it depends is proportional to t
Chapter 16/17
Chapter 16 deals with the kinetic theory of gases; that is the translational motion of gas
particles and molecular collusions. Gas kinetic theory is applicable when the particle density of
the gas is such that the distance between particles