TEXTBOOK READING NOTES FOR 0925 LECTURE: How do the brain and body develop
Genome: the complete set of genes of any organism
Genotype: the genetic material an individual inherits
Phenotype: the observable expression of the genotype, includin
TEXTBOOK READING NOTES 10/07
Assimilation: the process by which people translate incoming information into a
form that fits concepts they already understand
Accommodation: the process by which people adapt current knowledge structures
in response to new
Understanding Who or What
o Wellman and Gelman proposed that young children organize their
knowledge f the things in the world into three informal theories
o A theory of physics (inanimate objects)
o A theory of psychology (peope)
o A theory of biology (o
What is Development?
Key Question: Why is it worth studying development?
Fertile Crescent around the Nile River Valley: we were small bands of
hunter-gatherers. From there, our worlds have expanded tens of thousands of
miles. We have co-opted o
Whats going on from t-9 until t+3 months?
Poor special resolutaion
50 sites is not enough to capture complexity
anti-social kids: dont show an increase in cortisol level under stressed
Lecture 5 How do the brain and body develop?
Structures of the brain
Cerebral cortex: the most human part of the human brain
Outer layer of the brain. Aka neoco
Lecture 7: HOW DO BABIES SENSE AND PERCEIVE?
Continued from last lecture
Cruising and Walking
Cruising: walking while holding onto objects
Early walking: disorganized, jerky, recver balance with each step
Component skills for walking: balanc
0918 How do Scientists study development and
Are there any issues that are different than the ethics of doing
research with adults?
o Obtaining informed consent is harder because young children
might not unders
Lecture 6: How do babies move?
From last lecture
Sleep over the course of development: in the beginning, babies
sleep for about 16 hours a night. After adulthood and then old age,
the average sleep per night is about 6 hours.
Lecture 8: What are the most influential theories of
Journal article assignment
Research topic follow your natural curiosity
Research question: dont make it huge
Plato (5th c. BC) vs Locke (1632-1704)
Plato: knowledge is
What are the foundations of academic success?
Delay of gratification
Delay of gratification
Could kids wait? How long would they wait before they fail to resist
the temptation and eat the mars
How do young children learn and remember?
Classic learning theory: Pavlovs dogs (classical conditioning)
learning to associate
Salivating to the red bowl (that normally contains meat powder) or
to the footsteps of the feeder classical conditi
TEXTBOOK READING FOR 10/02: How do infants sense and perceive?
Sensation: the processing of basic information from the external world
by the sensory receptors in the sense organs and brain.
Perception: the process of organizing and interpreting sensory
Critical/sensitive period for language development?
Sources of evidence for a critical period in human language learning
Second language learning
Participants: native speakers of Korean or Chinese, who immigrated
Pediatrics group to recommend reading aloud to children from birth
The single best predictor of reading proficiency is early
phonological awareness: the ability to attend to, reflect on, and
manipulate the sounds of speech.
Michael headed for the court
Prostitutes appeal to Pope
2 sisters reunited after 18 years at checkout counter
Grandmother of eight makes hole in one
On tonights show, Letterman will discuss sex with Dr
Internal Working models
Johnson, Dweck, & Chen (2010)
Used strange situation task to classify 13 month old infants as
secure or insecurely attached
Then tested their expectations for how a caregiver might behave
toward a crying infant
1106 Language and word PROCESSING
Statistical learning supports the beginning of word learning
This is a ship-shipping ship, shipping shipping ship
Buffalo buffalo buffalo buffalo buffalo
Buffalo buffalo buffalo buffalo buffalo bu
Emotions and attachment
Physically abused children are able to identify angry faces better
tells us that the kinds of faces kids see in their lives affect their
Question: how does de
Do Children have a sense of self?
Do children learn from ignorant speakers?
kids forget incorrect information as time passes
o thats a feppin audience nods
o thats a merval audience shakes heads
o kids think that the object is calle
Are children moral creatures?
o Start to differentiate abilities in different areas
o Place higher value on domains where they excel
What determines self-esteem?
o Parenting styles
o Feedback from peers
o Teacher and m
What do children know about gender and race?
Authority/respect in childhood
Question: Do children use other peoples social attention to figure
out whom they should follow?
yes: yellow shirt gets attention, pink shirt does not get attention
Sources of individual differences in racial prejudice
Transmission from parents and trusted adults
Q: is there a correlation between parents and childrens racial
o Found correlation between mother and children, not father
Social Media and Children
Question: how does background TV affect childrens behaviors?
o Children with background TV played less
Question: how does background TV affect parent-child interactions?
o Parents talked less with
TEXTBOOK READING NOTES FOR 0930: How do infants move?
Reflexes: innate, fixed patterns of action that occur in response to particular
Stepping reflex: a neonatal reflex in which an infant lifts first one leg and then the
other in a coordinated
TEXTBOOK READING FOR 9/23: Whats going on from t-9 until t+3 months?
Epigenesist: the emergence of new structures and functions in the
course of development
o Aristotle rejected the idea of preformation in favor of what he
Can Children read other peoples minds?
Childrens eye witness testimony
Simon Says study
3- to 6- year-old children played Simon says, touching their own
nose, stomach, foot etc. and /or those of other children
one month later: social worker i