Brain composed of billions of interconnected neurons organized into neural circuits that
support any and all brain functions
-Sensory perception, movement, learning/memory, emotions, personality
How are neural circuits within the brain or
1. Electrical properties of neurons
2. Synaptic Transmission
3. Sensory systems: vision
4. Motor systems
5. Learning and memory
6. Brain disorders
10/13, 11/15, 12/15
Neuroscience-study of nervous system
-Central nervous sy
Patient HM: Had bilateral epilepsy->Remove hippocampus and surrounding regions
-Helped with epilepsy, could access old memories before surgery, couldnt form
explicit memories, called anterograde amnesia
-However could learn motor skill (implici
NEU 201 Precept 10/3
Inactivation of sodium voltage gated channels, in the action potential, voltage will go
-Ball and chain method, ball blocks the channel->inactivation
-Closing and inactivation of the channels are totally separate
-Channel is init
Simple and complex receptive fields are created through the organization of inputs to the V1 by the
types of inputs the V1 receives from the LGN. For example, for the simple cells of the V1, they have a
receptive field that is a bar in a specific orientat
Patient HM: experience led to insights about neural basis of learning and memory
-Had bilateral epilepsy, had bilateral temporal lobe excisions
-Removing hippocampus and surrounding regions
-Helped with epilepsy, could access old memories
NEU 201 12/1/16
Diseases: Alzheimers. Parkinsons, Schizophrenia, Depression/Bipolar, Addiction,
Anxiety disorders, epilepsy
Alzheimers most common, second most common Parkinsons
Alzheimers disease: Very common (1/20 by 65, by 85, older you get more common
During the action potential, V_m approaches E_Na when the voltage gated sodium channels open.
Originally, there is a greater concentration of Na+ ions outside the cell, but, in response to an electrical
signal, voltage gated sodium channels will open and
Both the frequency and the timing of action potentials encode the information sent by
neurons while the shape of the action potentials stay the same for the specific neuron.
This is shown by measuring the nerve response of a cat when applying different
Katz's quantal hypothesis was that neurotransmitters are released into the synapse in discrete packets,
which were found to be pre-synaptic vesicles. Katz tested this using the neuromuscular junction because
it is easier to study since it has bigger actio
There are different type of cone cells that are sensitive to different wavelengths because they express a
different rhodopsin variant. In humans, there are three different types of cones: S(blue), M(green) and L
(red). When each cone is exposed to its spe
Parkinson's disease causes the degeneration of dopamine neurons that project to the striatum. The only
treatments involve either causing dopamine neurons to release more dopamine, high frequency
stimulation of the STN or dopamine neuron transplantation. H
Midterm 1 Review
- Interaction between two neurons
- Voltage gated calcium channel
Calcium(Ca2+) is more outside then inside, so it rushes inside when
calcium gated channels open.
Neuroscience Lecture 10
- Motor systems I
Bain structures that control movements
Sends top down projections to brain stem nuclei
Local neurons project to motor neurons in the spinal cord.
Muscles are the very end of the motor sy
Neuroscience Lecture 9
- Last lecture: the retina
Light hits photoreceptors at back of the retina.
Ganglion cells are output cells of the retina
- How does info go from ganglion cells to the Thalamus?
From the retina to the thalamus(LG
Neuroscience Lecture 8
- How do rods and cones in the retina detect light?
- Retina is thin layer of cells in the back of the eye.
Focus layer focuses light onto the retina.
Photoreceptors are receptive to light.
- Rods and Cones
Neuroscience Lecture 7
Ligand gated channels like Ach
Ach transmitter binds to receptor and opens the gate
Some allow any cat ions(positive to enter, but not selective as to
which they allow to enter.
Neuroscience Lecture 6
Cat ions positive ions like sodium.
Receptors can be either IONOTROPIC or METABOTROPIC
IONOTROPIC are ligand-gated channels
- Pore opens and then ions can go through
- Different acetylcholine Ach receptors are permeable t
Neuroscience Lecture 4
- The membrane(lipid bilayer) generates the change on the capacitor.
- Resistor has battery pack which is Nernst potential because that is
analogous to chemical force driving the ion.
- Membrane potential is weighted aver
Neuroscience Lecture 3
Electrical circuit model
- Vm is membrane potential(inside of cell vs. outside of the cell
- Capacitive which mimic the lipid bilayer describes the ability to hold
- I is the common symbol for current.
Neuroscience Lecture 2
Electrical Properties of neurons
- Electrically hyper polarized at rest.
- Imagine a neuron in a dish with a recording electrode and a ground
Moment electrode is inserted we can see a huge drop in the
Neuroscience Lecture 1
- Animals are used for research and scientific breakthrough but in the
U.S we take great efforts to remain humane and to ensure the animals feel
as minimal pain as possible.
Dendrites and Axons
- Dendrites integra