Answer the following questions.
1. What are the criteria used to define the term mineral?
The criteria used to describe minerals are: naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline
solids, with narrowly defined chemical formulas
2. What are the four main typ
Glaciers - moving bodies of ice
a. Dynamics of glaciers
i. Formation of glaciers
1. Net accumulation of snow year after year
2. Snow becomes denser, granular snow firn
3. Firn fuses together to form dense glacial ice
4. Glacial ice of sufficie
PHYSICAL GEOLOGY 1170
2nd EXAM sample
I. Multiple Guess: Choose the best completion or response to each of the following statements. Please mark your
answers on the Scantron sheet numbers 1-30.
Heat, pressure and chemically active fluids are the:
1. What is the difference between porosity and permeability?
Porosity is the percentage of a materials volume that is pore space or open space.
Permeability is a minerals capacity to transmit fluids.
2. Define the terms zone of aeration and zone of satura
1. Define geology (in your own words, do not copy the definition directly from the text
Geology is a very broad field, as it incorporates the study of the materials and systems
which make up planets and moons in our solar system as well as
1. What are the three agents of metamorphism?
Heat, pressure, and chemically active fluids.
2. Briefly describe the three types of metamorphism.
Contact a type of metamorphism in which rocks adjacent to plutons are altered by
rising magma and pressure.
1. Define the terms weathering and erosion.
Weathering the process by which rocks and minerals at or near the Earths surface
are broken down through physical and chemical processes.
Erosion The removal of weathered material from their source by way of run
1. What pieces of evidence did Wegener use to reconstruct Pangaea and support his
theory of continental drift?
In order to reconstruct Pangea and support his theory of continental drift, Wegener
used a variety of evidence including how shorelines of diffe
1. Describe the characteristics of the four types of seismic waves.
S-waves Shear waves. Type of body wave with an up and down motion, and they
vibrate at right angles in relation to their direction of travel.
P-waves Compression waves. Type of body wav
1. What are the differences between valley glaciers and continental glaciers?
Valley glacier A glacier that is confined to a single mountain valley or interconnected
mountain valley system.
Continental Glacier A glacier that covers a vast area and is not
1. Explain why volcanic gases and pyroclastic materials are more dangerous than lava
Volcanic gases and pyroclastic materials are more dangerous than lava flows, because
pyroclastic materials such as ash and ejecta move very fast and can cause seri
1. What is the difference between stress and strain?
Stress is a measure of force per unit area applied to a material such as rock or a mineral
deposit. Strain is simply the resulting deformation caused by stress.
2. What is the difference between an anti
Cirques, head to head converge on a horn. Separated by aretes.
Roche moutonnee with striations. Ice moved from right to lef