POLYMER STRUCTURE AND MORPHOLOGY
I. Stereochemistry (primarily a feature of vinyl polmers)
A. Monomer connections
Head to head (usually synthesized in a roundabout way)
Head to tail (the usual connection betwee
III. Synthesis of step polymers
1. Diamines reacting with diacids
- recall nylon nomenclature: Nylon #C(diamine), #C(diacid)
- reaction occurs via salt formation.
- reaction temperature 260 C to 280 C.
IV. Properties and uses of step polymers
a. Good tensile strength and elasticity
i. Nylon 4,6 and 6,6 have best strength due to arrangement of
ii. Nylons absorb moisture and the water acts as a placticizer.
A. Two difunctional monomers undergo a combination (often condensation)
Common condensation products are H2O and HCl.
Usually one or both of the monomers are dicarboxylic acid derivatives.
B. Polymer chain g
Simple IUPAC Polymer Nomenclature Guide
A. Name derived from structural repeat unit (SRU)
B. Poly(repeat unit)
C. Seniority of subunits
1. Nitrogeneous heterocyclic rings
2. Heterocyclic rings
3. Acyclic heteroatoms
O > S > Se > Te > N > P > As > Sb > B
I. Functional Group Substitution
1. Polyvinyl acetate to polyvinyl alcohol
a. treatment with sodium hydroxide (with by-products of acetic acid and
b. treatment of with sulfuric acid in methanol (with by-pr
POLYMER CHARACTERIZATION AND TESTING
I. Bulk spectroscopy
1. Polymers with different stereochemistries and monomer sequences may
have distinguishable spectra.
2. Characterization can be done with comparison of spectra with model
MOLECULAR WEIGHTS AND THEIR CHARACTERIZATION
I. Molecular weight dispersion
A. Most bulk polymer samples have a variety of different sized molecules.
B. Ambiguity must be resolved to create a measure to compare samples.
II. Number-average molecular weig
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND RHEOLOGY
A. Axial stress/strain
Hookes law strain is linearly proportional to stress
B. Shear stress/strain
Hookes law still valid.
Use shear modulus rather than Youngs modulus
Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 74, No. 10, pp. 19211956, 2002.
INTERNATlONAL UNION OF PURE AND APPLIED CHEMlSTRY
COMMISSION ON MACROMOLECULAR NOMENCLATURE*
NOMENCLATURE OF REGULAR SINGLE-STRAND
4. Properties of Cationic and Anionic Polymers
b. Impervious to air
a. Gaskets and sealants
b. Fuel additive
i. Thickener (reduces unwanted misting)
ii. Detergent (keeps fuel injectors clean)
A. Ionic polymerization is a type of chain polymerization. (Polymer chain
grows at one end rather than two ends.)
B. Cationic polymerization
1. Lewis acid induces formation of carbocation that propagates when
INTRODUCTION TO POLYMERS
A. Poly many
B. Mer unit
A polymer is a long molecule with a unit that repeats from 50 to 1,000,000 times.
C. Mono one
The molecules which are linked together to form a polymer.
D. Oligo few
A nebulous term; however
A. Bulk polymerization
1. Initiator dissolved in monomer starts polymerization.
2. If polymer is soluble, then reaction mix increases viscosity.
3. If polymer is insoluble, viscosity remains constant.
4. Increased viscosity leads to occlu
A. Free-radical polymerization is a type of chain polymerization (like ionic
B. Free radical monomer attacks double bond of another monomer to form bond
and propagate the free radical.
C. Most vinyl
A. Random ABBAABABABBBBA
Each monomer has comparable reactivities with each other.
B. Alternating ABABABABABABABAB
1. Each monomer reacts exclusively with the other monomer
C. Block AAAAAAAAAABBBBBBBBBBAAAAAAAAA