Robert Nozick 20th Century American
Libertarianism: the belief that society should protect the liberties of all of
Associated w/ drug legalization, 2nd amendment, abortion, few taxes,
Not anarchists, but have a fairly limited role
Egoism: the belief that all morality is tied to self-interest
Differs from nihilism as nihilists have no sense of self-interest, no morality
Practicing nihilists usually have no value for other people. They are
Taught by Plato- influenced by him, but more easily separated than
Plato and Socrates's views
Happiness is ethics: that at which we aim, the goal
Being is happiness as long as the being is functioning well
Individual Ethics: what should I do? Or what kind of person should I be?
Societal Ethics: What rules/ rights should govern a group? What makes a
society just or unjust
Utilitarianism is a theory which straddles both categories
1st level ethics: focuses on choices/ actions
What should I do?
2nd level ethics: reasons for the 1st level
Why did I/ should I do this/that?
3rd level ethics: values/ principles implied by the 2nd level
What values/ principles are impl
Similarities to Hobb:
2 states: Nature and Civil Society
2 Questions: Why and How do we live in civil society
What are people like? Free and Equal
Limitation on the way- Locke understands this
Law of Nature: No unnecessary harm to others; based on r
Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) taught John Stuart Mills (1806-1873)
These two are the big names in Utilitarianism
It seems to be an English thing: England, America, Canada, Australia
(Germany and France never really got into it)
A theory of Justice
Still asked the questions "Why?" and "How?" do we live in civil society.
Rather than a State of Nature, Rawls has an original position of
equality which is purely imaginary and hypothetical.
Characteristics of p
Religion in Ethics
Is religiously based morality its own theory?
Egoists: looks for ulterior motives, how does this religion benefit
Religions offer believers a set of incentives and disincentives
(punishments) to which they are responding
Goodwill: (starting point of moral theory) a sincere desire to do what is right
Morality is a matter of motives, not consequences.
Shop Keeper Example:
A shop keeper always asks a fair price of all of his customers. Why?
Good business practice; Eg