Biol 304 Exam 2; Oct. 19, 2009
STUDENT NUMBER (L number)_
Multiple Choice Instructions:
- Read questions CAREFULLY.
- Neatly circle the letter of the MOST-CORRECT answer.
- Double -check your work.
Short answer Instructions
- Read the Ques
Chapter 7: Clusters and Repeats
There are many examples of gene duplication, particularly in eukaryotic cells.
Multiple copies of a gene are usually present in clusters on a chromosome.
Some duplications lead to pseudogenes that have lost the ability to e
Chapter 8: Genome Evolution
A growing number of complete genome sequences are available and allow study of genome
structure and organization, as well as large-scale genomic differences.
Comparative genomics allows study of individual gene evolution and th
Chapter 3: Methods in Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering
Two items essential to molecular biology are restriction endonucleases, which allow DNA to be
cut into precise pieces, and cloning vectors, such as plasmids or phages used to carry inserted
Chapter 1 Genes are DNA
The hereditary basis of every living organism is its genome, a long sequence of deoxyribonucleic
acid (DNA) that provides the complete set of hereditary information carried by the organism as
well as its individual cells.
o The DNA
Chapter 9: Chromosomes
The genetic material in cells is much longer than the size of the cell and must be extremely
In viruses, the genetic material is tightly packed in a headshell, the structure of which limits the
length of DNA that can be i
Chapter 10: Chromatin
The nucleosome is the basic subunit of chromatin and consists of a core histone octamer with
DNA wrapped around it.
Each nucleosome contains about 200 bp of DNA, which can vary in different locations in the
chromosome, and two copies
Chapter 6: Genome Sequences and Gene Numbers
Many genomes have been completely sequenced, including many species of bacteria, fungi,
plants, and animals.
The exact number of genes is known for many species, and minimum gene numbers required
has been estim
BIOL 304 EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE
-Coding Strand: DNA strand to which a transcribed mRNA chain is
identical (except for TU nucleotide differences) in 5 to 3 polarity
-Template Strand: DNA strand to which a transcribed mRNA is
BIOL 304 Exam 2 Study Guide
(Sections 2.1 DNA Replication, 2.2 Telomere Replication, 2.3 DNA Recombination, 2.4 DNA Repair, & 2.5
Transposons & Retroviruses)
-DNA Replication: The process by which a double-stranded DNA molecule is copied to produce 2 iden
Exam 3 - Monday April 3
- Note revised schedule
- Exam 3 date remains unchanged
- Exam 2 data should be posted on Friday March 17
- Schedule for painting White Hall is unknown and I will post the
exam 2 answer key outside of my office (WHI 314A) and i
Chapter 2: Genes Encode RNAs and Polypeptides
Each chromosome consists of a linear array of genes and each gene resides at a particular
location on the chromosome (the genetic locus).
In organisms with two sets of chromosomes, one of each chromosome pair,
CLASS 1.2: 09/01/15
GENES and DNA (1:2-25)
A. DNA is the Hereditary Material:
contains ALL the information needed to construct an
nucleic acid; always DNA in cells
physically packaged into chromosomes
DNA containing genes,
27 August 2015
B. Mendelian Genetics
set of rules to explain transmission of traits
in diploid organisms (animals, plants, humans)
shuffling of the genome at meiosis for
the creation of gametes
Does not apply to bacteria
u 1. Law of Segregation (of all
Point Mutation can be caused by a mutagen
Nitrous acid deaminates C to U
d. Mutations can be reverted or made less severe
i. Forward mutation = adversely affects a wild type gene
ii. Back mutation = restores mutant ph
- Sophomores or Juniors enrolled in STEM discipline
- Min GPA 3.85 (3.9 preferably)
The ABO gene
Encodes Transferase protein
A allele =>Transferase that adds
N-Ac-Gal sugars (A antigens)
to surface pr
CLASS 1.4 (Nova Video)
GENOMES and PERSONALIZED
Watching the Video
Cracking your genetic code
Make sure you answer the questions posted in
the study guide for Class 1.4
DNA Pol II
Comprised if multiple TFII factors labeled TFIIX
Three of the most common RNA Pol II promoters are
1. TATA Box- Only upstream element with relatively fixed location
G-C substitutions are the most severe
2. INR (initiator sequence)- spans s
Lecture 4 Video Notes
1. How is the ancient Greek motto of know thyself being manifested today in the era
of personalized medicine?
Know their genome sequence to figure out genotypes of diseases.
Knowing your genome to figure out genotypes of diseases
Examples of DNA response elements are
1. GRE: Glucocorticoid response elements.
2. Heat-shock response elements
3. Metal response elements.
Protects cells against heavy metals.
Heavy metal ingestion can cause damag
Whieh ef the fellewing is NOT an important eensideratien
in Baeterial premeters?
A. Hew similar the -1cfw_ regien is te a eensensns
B. Hew similar the -35 regien is ta a eensensns
C. The length ef the sequenee between -10 and -35.
Which cf the fcllcwiag is TRUE ccuccmiug liricaslI
A. Pricu diseases are caused by RNA mclcculcs
with uausuallj,r stahlc scccaclarjpr steucuu'cs.
B. Pricus diseases are caused by viruses.
C. Pricus arc c1115.Ir fcuud in mammals.
D. Pricu diseases are iufe