I. Interpreting Risk
a. Genetic counselors use visual representations to influence and create
meaning for the patient.
b. Genetic counselors imbue objective statistics with subjective
c. Statistics are perceived differently from different
a. The first genetic counseling training program was a two-year program in
Sarah Lawrence College in 1969.
b. Eugenicists at the turn of the century believed that unit traits were
inherited as a package. This way, people of the lower class
I. Relative Truths?
a. It is difficult for genetic counselors to be nondirective when patients use
their services in order to selectively abort fetuses based on sex.
a.i. They want to support the womans choice, but they are confronted
with obvious devianc
a. Rich people can feel that the information and screenings genetic
counseling offers is rudimentary while poor people find the same
information to be overwhelming.
II. Native Languages
a. Genetic counselors must realize that a common lang
I. Acquiring Scientific Literacy
a. Working poor women were the only group who hadnt previously heard of
b. Most women have heard of AMN through TV or popular publications.
II. Evaluating Amniocentesis
a. Most women were overall satisfied with their
a. Many women report their heightened anxiety whilst waiting for the results
b. Some women cant afford to miss work during the day following their
II. Liminal Dread
a. Pregnancy is a liminal state, which inherently has stresse
I. Encountering Belief
a. Many Pentecostal and Evangelical Protestants saw Rapps interview as an
opportunity to testify.
b. Religion provides social and material resources for people in addition to
spiritual direction, especially for immigrants. This can
I. Fetal Suffering
a. Spanish-speaking women feel a responsibility for their fetus well being.
They feel they must abort if the fetus will suffer.
b. Recent immigrants felt that they couldnt hinder their familys attempt at a
new life by adding the burden
a. The possibility of late abortion shadows AMN.
b. Down syndrome accounts for half of all positive diagnoses. This
possibility gets the majority of attention, however.
c. Many women dont completely understand the conditions they are
I. Thinking through the Gap
a. Many women without a sense of scientific literacy use community
epidemiology, comparing themselves with friends and relatives.
b. Many women have sought counseling because of exposure to drugs,
occupational hazards, etc. The