THE FREE WILL OBJECTION
The Prediction Version of the Free Will Argument
1. Computers only do what they are programmed to do.
2. Programming is done by human programmers who know (can predict) what their
programs will do.
3. Anything that can be predicted
Classical AI vs Connectionism
serial processing vs parallel processing
central memory vs distributed memory
Top down design vs bottom up design
One smart, directing program vs many stupid interacting units
Symbols & rep v
Epistemology theory of knowledge
Metaphysics theory of reality
o Human minds and bodies are just bodies/Gods?
o Organizes and tells us reality
Value Theory (Axiology) theory of ethics, political theories
Weak AI vs. strong AI
Weak: Can simulate some mental activity and intelligent behavior
Strong: Engaged in the right computations has a real mind
Is it really thinking? Have beliefs?
Bridge between the Physical and Material
AI Ch5: Hard look at the facts
Symbol system hypothesis
evidence = program computers to carry out tasks that we
accomplish by using our heads lower score going to tasks that are
narrowly specialized and require a min of adaptability to novel
John Lucas, Roger Penrose
Godels theorem sees to me to prove that Mechanism I s fale, that is,
that minds cannot be explained as machines JR Lucas
there are things true in arithmetic that cannot be proved in the
April 5 - The Turing test
Let a machine imitate a human to test if it can think
Can a machine think?
Could something made out of mechanical parts have a mind
How would we know
Attributing beliefs to nonhuman animals, infants, computers/robots
Belief = brain in physical state. Phsyiological psyc can determine
facts about brain state and whether or not you believe a certain
belief physiological psyc co
Trial and error if try wrong path then go back, so essentially draw a
figure out what is important in the game. For example: need to
know not to put checkers near the edges of the board to be more
Is this really l
SEARLES CHINESE ROOM ARGUMENT
John Searles Target: Strong AI
Even if we grant for the sake of argument 2 common assumptions of strong AI:
1. Linguistic output indistinguishable from a human.
2. Turing test passed.
A computer still cannot understand anyt
THE CASE FOR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
The Dartmouth Conference (The Dartmouth Summer Research Project on AI)
Claude Shannon (AT&T)
John McCarthy (Dartmouth) coins Artifical Intelligence
Marvin Minsky (MIT)
Nathaniel Rochester (IBM)
Allen Newell and Her
AUTOMATA THEORY AND TURING MACHINES
Transition Diagram: States contain transitions. Transition conditions.
Definition of Automata Theory
Body of physical and logical principles
Underlying the operation of any actual or virtual computational device (an
THE CONSCIOUSNESS OBJECTION
Recall Daniel Dennetts Three Stances
Physical Stance (physics & chemistry)
Design Stance (biology & engineering)
Intentional Stance (software & minds)
o But does this require consciousness?
Three Senses of Consciousness
Basic Philosophical Areas
Value Theory (Axiology)
History of Computers
DNA: programmed function but not technology
Abacus: technology but not automatic
Quipo: technology but not automatic
Francisco Pizzaro and
Models for Computing
1. Classic AI GOFAI
2. Connectionism Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) aka Parallel Distributed
3. Robotic architecture
Learns through feedback
o Nodes vary in firing rate
o Input, hidden, and ou
THE SIMULATION ARGUMENT
At least one of the following propositions is true:
o The human species is very likely to go extinct before reaching a posthuman
o Any posthuman civilization is extremely unlikely to run a significant number of
THE TURING TEST
Can a machine think? (Ontological issue)
How would we know? (Epistemological issue)
Grandfather of AI?
For REASON, in this sense, is nothing but reckoning (that is, adding and
subtracting) of the consequences of general nam
THE CREATIVITY OBJECTION
1. Real minds have creativity.
2. Computers do not and never will have creativity.
Therefore, computers can never have real minds and strong AI is not possible.
1992 American Association of AI conference
Arguments in Favor of Classical AI
Functionalism (computationalism) as a philosophy of mind
Another set of criticisms of classical AI
Brains dont operate on Classical AI model
Evolution played a big role in dev of