Xenophon and the End of the Peloponnesian War
Persians assistance esp. via Cyrus (son of Persian king) Athenians were
never concerned with attrition because they had much more money than the
Spartans before (Pericles). But now, with the assistance of the
Why The Persians Lost
The Persians war strategy defeated everyone else, except the Greeks. They
didnt change their tactic even after their embarrassing Marathon defeat
because it takes various factors to change that; it is not just a policy change.
Thucydides Book 7-8
Was the Sicilian Expedition doomed?
o Strategy flawed: stayed too long
o Athenian leadership issues: too much invested in the lunar eclipse,
Nicias scared to leave because of the democracy
o Democratic leadership issues: place too muc
Thucydides Books 1-2
What did Thucydides want to achieve? And why is this important?
o Informs reader about his intent and provides background for potential
biases, what does he include/exclude?
o Wants to describe physis (constant qualities regardless s
Thucydides Book 6
Alcibiades is terrible but he is a military genius. Even Thucydides admits this:
whichever side hes on is usually winning
Pharnabazus has his brother assassinate Alcibiades
Spartans betrayed all the cities, they basically traded the A
Thucydides Book 5 and Decelean War
Found a cist grave at Amphipolis: probably contains Brasidass bones and a
gold crown was find
421, Peace of Nicias signed
o Peloponnesian league allies very upset, Corinth, Megarians, and Boeotians
refuse to sign
Thucydides Book 3
Siege warfare: the Greeks invented catapults in 393. By the 350s, the
advanced catapults were able to knock down mud walls. But then they just
start building stone walls.
o Siege warfare not a regular routine for Greeks. Difficult to s
Thucydides Book 4
Athenians are insatiable IV. 19 Spartan speech in Athens during Pylos
incidents, IV. 41. 4, IV. 65.4
o Suffering from the classic case of koros hybrisate, like in Herodotus
o Pylos: this sometimes works, but usually does not
o Reject pe
There was no coinage being issued in Athens and silver was used but it was
weighed every time. It was tedious to weigh it and check its legitimacy.
o Athens adopted neighboring trading poliss coinage system to facilitate
Herodotus and the Persian Wars (cont.)
Make sure to be careful who you quote because The Histories that includes
quotes from various characters, whose opinions are not Herodtouss.
o Need to distinguish and state why nested spoken quotes are
Decelean War (Cont.)
Peloponnesian partition the building of triremesbuild 42/100 planned ships.
But they have enough to have the same amount of Athenians
Spartans have two options:
o Can cut off Athenians grain supply (from South Russia throug
Peisistratus and Cleisthenes
Four big plains regions after Solonian reforms, there are 3 power bases.
Lycurgas, Peisistratus, and Megacles were in power in these bases.
Peisistratus tries 3 times to take over control of the whole state. Succeeds in
Overview of the Persian Wars
460-400 BC. Thucydides and Herodotus wrote about these contemporarily
Herodotus was the first person to write connected history
o Inspired by Homer, wanted his writing to read like literature
o Instead of stating facts, he wan
The Roman Republic (from the Encyclopedia Britannica)
One prevalent modern view is that the monarchy at Rome was incidentally terminated through military defeat
and foreign intervention. This theory sees Rome as a site highly prized by the Etruscans of th
Herodotus and the Persian Wars
Writers usually came from wealthy families.
Most people would have enjoyed The Histories orally and the themes repeat
themselves to try to drive home certain points Doesnt pick stories at
Herodotus was raised in the
Must explain why points are important. Cannot just add bullet points to
No polis ever trained the ptochoi because even though the plousioi and the
penetes argued amongst themselves, they could agree that they did not want
any poor p
Plousioi and Pentes in Seventh-Century Greece
Penetes do not want to run govt, but want to be treated equally.
Reasons for Plousioi to be unhappy
o Need to be generous all the time, do not get to accumulate wealth
o People can take away their power beca
What is persuasive writing?
o Non fictional
o (QARE) Examines a Question, suggests an Answer, provides Reasons
why that answer is correct, supplies supporting Evidence
o Emphasis on clarity and brevity
Steps for writing
1. Think of the
Oikos and Demos
Why are Greeks so pessimistic?
o One possible reason: because most Greeks are farmers, there are
many reasons to be upset: bad weather, pest, Greek farmland is
terrible. Most households endured frequent bouts of hunger so there
is reason t
Greece is ~size of Alabama. Very mountainousgeographically fragmented.
Difficult to farm but almost everyone was a farmer (Grain, grapes, olive oil:
made up most of the Greek diet)
Very few animals: not much meat or horses. Cost to maintai
The Greek Dark Ages
o Protogeometric (round motifs)
o Early Geometric
o Middle Geometric (more concerned with covering piece with designs)
o Late Geometric (return to human forms)
Ionian Migration after Mycenaean fall
7th Century Developments
Because trade networks are opening up and farming has improved, more
bronze being made and used
Development of hoplite soldier, named after the hoplon, huge heavy metal
o 56, 5 7, 140 pound mannot going to be able to run qu
8th Century Developments
Democracy comes around 500 BCE. Before, Greek government was
dominated by aristocracy. How did this paradigm shift occur?
o Donlan argues that there never really was an aristocracy. There was
some sort of elite but the demos alwa
Basileis and the Demos
Professor Christesens list of 6 essential characteristics of Basileis
1. Chiefs/not kings no absolute power
Multiple basileis in any given community
Agamemnon is opposed by Achilles
On the tenth, Achilles called all the ranks to
Athletes and Athletics
Cults for individuals, kind of like demigods. (Theagenes for Thasos)
Pretty much worshipped athletes for very long periods of times
Big game sites: Olympia, Nemeia, Isthmia, and Delphi. Four locations
(perioidoi): circuit for all th
Community and Competition in Ancient Greece
Some notes on writing/reading actively:
o You should spend some time between finishing the reading and
o Should spend equal amounts of time reading and writing notes
Why are Tellus and the brothers, Cleo
The Aegean Bronze Age
Although generally economy grows at slow rates prior to industrialization,
economic development can happen in bursts as specialization and trade
o HOWEVER, trade without specialization is not that useful/ef