Summer Legislative Internship
Interested in Government?
Passionate about Community Service?
Planning a Career in Business or Public Relations?
State Representative Carol Sente is seeking energetic students from District 59 to assist
How do the changes in gene sequences allow us to reconstruct
the evolutionary relationships between related species?
The saying Dont judge a book by its cover. could be applied to the topic of evolution. For example,
humans share 7
Chapter 6 Video Notes
o Control center of the cell
o Information, blueprints
o Gene controlled: telling other parts of the cell what
o Inner and outer nuclear membrane
Rough ER: rough because it has ribosomes
Where we produce pr
7.1-7.3 Notes: Cell Membranes
Cell membranes composed of phospholipid bilayer embedded with
Amphipathic: one hydrophobic and one hydrophilic region
Fatty acid tails are hydrophobic
Hydrophilic head region
o Glycerol bonded to phosphate group, whi
Chapter 8 Video Notes
First law of thermodynamics: energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can
only be changed from one form to another
Total amount of energy in the universe remains constant
Energy stored in chemical bonds of food can be rel
Introduction to Population Genetics
Genetic drif: change in allele frequency due to random chance
o Mechanism of evolution
o Can be neutral, increase fitness, or decrease fitness because its due to chance
o Occurs in small populations
Chapter 6 Notes: Tour of the Cell
o Light microscope- visible light is passed through the specimen
and then through glass lenses
Lenses refract (bend) light so that image is magnified as it
is projected into eye
o Magnification increase
1. Which of the following is a statement of the first law of thermodynamics?
a. Energy cannot be created or destroyed
b. The entropy of the universe is decreasing
c. The entropy of the universe is constant
d. Kinetic energy is stored energy that results f
Cellular Respiration Notes
Cellular respiration: energy stored in chemical bonds of
organic compounds (such as glucose) released and used to
o Aerobic or anaerobic
Aerobic: requires oxygen
Much more efficient: 36-38 ATPs per
Active Transport Notes
Active transport: requires energy in order to move substance against concentration gradient
Active transport maintains the electrochemical gradient
Example: sodium potassium pump
o High concentration of sodium outside cell
o Low con
Crash Course Natural Selection/Speciation Warmup
1. Match each type of selection to its definition.
a. A form of natural selection in which ind
1. A group of organisms at any particular level in a classification system is called a
2. Viruses are denied their own kingdom because
a. They are too poorly underst
Gibbs Free Energy Practice Problems
= ( 32 )
1. Calculate the Gibbs free energy change (G) for the following chemical reaction:
ATP ADP + Pi
The reaction occurs at 68 F, the change in heat (H) = 19,070 cal,
Chapter 23.2 Reading Guide:
1. What is a population?
2. What is a gene pool?
3. The greater the number of fixed alleles, the lower the species diversity. What does it mean to say
that an allele is fixed
Exam 2 - Tuesday 8:00 - 9:30
Lower Strong Auditorium
Figure 1. Design of a collection of novel protein
residues designed to fold into 4-helix bundles (7, 8). Libr
His, Glu, Gln, Asp, and Asn) are encoded by the degene
Sex determination pathways
Establishing a complex pattern starting with simple morphogen gradients
start with a simple gradient of two mRNAs
a protein gradient results
Advice for Freshmen
1. Take courses with frequent feedback
2. Study in small groups
3. Keep an open mind, to everything
Gregor Mendels motivations & research
The Rediscovery of Mendel
The Legacy of Mendel on modern biology
Today Morphogen gradients and embryo
Friday Sex Determination
The Origins of Anterior-Posterior Polarity
Developmental Biology. 6th edition. 2000
skim for big picture - no need to memorize
Ideas on Protein
DNA is held
of the Triad.
Dogma: "Once information
get out again".
a the amino acid residues,
can act as a passive
we may be abl
Venn Diagram of the genetic code
what does it say?
Focus on the following regarding protein synthesis:!
Focus on the following sections:!
Specic Enzymes Couple Each Amino Acid to Its Appropriate tRNA M
How to control gene
Figure 2. The three separate diagrams labelled with the four bases at the first, second and
third codon positions respectively
Immunology Quiz #6
1. MHC class II molecules are found predominantly on B cells, dendritic cells
and macrophages. These are the lymphoid cells that ingest foreign,
extracellular materials and present the fragments to helper T cells.
Biology 342 - Ecology
The goal of this course is to confer understanding of the principles of Population and
Community Ecology, and the theoretical and empirical approaches of this field. Prerequisites
include Biology 290 (Introduction to Popula
Immunology Quiz #4
1. It neutralizes hydrogen peroxide or H2O2 into water or H2O. H2O2 is a common waste
produced sometimes by respiration or Krebs cycle and it is poisonous so you will die if your
body did not have catalyses.
2. In Chronic Granulomatous