Assess the role of enzymes in the barnacle adhesive assembly process.
Enzymes helped with cross-linking and activating proteins
To understand how glue assembles, need to work with glue before it begins
Found a way to extr
Benefits of Biomimetics:
Advances in medicine
Lots of applications
Challenges to Biomimetics:
May not be optimal overall
Compare and contrast the liquid crystal vs. the micelle model for silk assembly.
Spidroin: fibrous protein in spider silk
All spidroins are secreted by the epithelial cells of spinning glands which exist in pairs
(each pair secretes different
Describe the composition and mechanics of the marine mussel byssal thread.
Marine mussel is almost entirely protein and almost all those proteins have been
sequenced, very well-studied
Mussel glue can be bought and allows you to have adhesion
Quantify strength and toughness of long bones. Characterize the mechanisms
that contribute to toughness at each hierarchical level.
Anisotropy: property dependent on the direction that youre testing in
3 directions: transverse (push into the sid
Define self-assembly and provide one specific example of this process.
Bottom-up approach of aggregates coming together
Production of macroscale material based on nano and microscale chemical interactions
Ending up with a purposeful arrangem
Toughness is higher in bones/shell than in pure materials because theyre composites;
materials are combinations of minerals and organic materials combined in unique ways
Compare materials that have very different properties
Assess the strength and toughness of silks in comparison to synthetic materials.
Biological materials usually have low density and broad range of strength, as shown by
Silk is super strong, as strong as steel
o Difference? Steel ha
1. Describe what are biological materials and explain why they are of interest. List
the broad areas within biological materials science, and provide specific examples of
Biological materials: materials and systems that are encountered in nature
Assess the factors that drive mechanical properties of keratin-based structures, specifically
within the context of hydration.
Keratin-based materials tend to be stronger and
tougher than mineralized materials
Study: took a weight with a sharp
Compare and contrast terrestrial adhesion mechanisms across phyla.
Multiple adhesion systems in rain beetle
o At macro level, have small hook-like/claw-like projections, so use interlocking
o At micro scale, there are larger and smaller struct
Lecture 7 Notes
Mechanical Testing Machine Used to obtain stress strain curve for elastic modulus
Has 2 plates and a load cell, which can pull something at a specific force
Y axis: stress measured in MPa or GPa (force)
X axis: strain which is change in
Describe the formation and hierarchical structures of keratin-based materials. Compare
and contrast alpha and beta keratin.
Wide diversity of keratin-based biological materials
Finger nails, skin, scales, toucan beak, skin, hooves, wool
Describe the mechanism by which bones grow in width and length.
Epiphyseal plate is built with cartilage and chondrocytes
X-ray of hand in child and adult
o Less smaller pieces in adult
o Greater separation between pieces in child vs adult
Compare and contrast physiological function and the mechanical characteristics necessary
to fulfill those physiological mechanisms.
-Carry blood away from heart
What functions do the outermost layer of organisms serve?
Protection from environment
Identify functional roles of the cuticle in a range of organisms. Explain th
Characterize general classes of adhesion/attachment, and identify organisms that employ
Adherence of water
Resistance to force
How adhesion tests work
Something stuck to some surface an
Commonalities between wood and other examples
Tubules in hooves vs. layers in wood cells
Sacrificial bonds in bone vs bonds between matrix
Concentric cellular layers vs lamellae in wood
Changes in properties upon hydration
Predict the mecha
Define nucleation. Compare and contrast homogenous vs. heterogeneous nucleation,
particularly in terms of thermodynamics. Describe the factors that may affect nucleation,
morphology and orientation of crystals.
Nucleation: initial process of io
Broad areas within biological materials science (6 categories)
2. Discuss basic overarching principals within biological materials science
Assess the purpose of and basis for color in organisms
o Mimicry to more dangerous organisms
Electromagnetic spectrum contains a mix of wavelengths
2 ways to produce color: pigments or structural color