1. (b) Review Question 7.4
and Allow us to account for everything or part of something without explicitly writing it all out. Instead of having to write everyones names out which would create HUGE name name list you can just use the all inclusive . Same

1. (see secondary documents) 2. For the tree below, show your path of nodes and the number of nodes you need to visit if you follow the protocol from right to left for the respective search strategies of
a. Breadth-first search 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,

Timothy Martens ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE COS 451 OL009 September 2008
1. (10 points) Prove the following, using a truth table:
A (A B ) A A T T F F T F T F B T T F F A (A B ) A
2. (20 points) Prove the following by using (a) truth tables and (b) the Resolu

Timothy Martens ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE COS 451 OL009 September 2008
1. Complete the following problems, which can be found in section 9.8 (Review Questions), page
261.
a. Explain why an expert system are so called.
Because they are expert in a particular

8.3 Is the sentence x, y x = y valid? Explain.
The sentence x, y x=y is valid. If it is true in every model, a sentence is valid. In empty
domains, x and y are assigned to the first domain element. An existentially quantified
sentence would be true also i

7.4 7.4 Which of the following are correct?
a. False |= True. - Correct
b. True |= False. - Correct
c. (A B) |= (A B). - Correct
d. A B |= A B. not correct
e. A B |= A B. not Correct
f. (A B) C |= (A C) (B C). - Correct
g. (C (A B) (A C) (B C). Not correc

WA 1 Balamurugan Rajendiran
1.2 Read Turings original paper on AI (Turing, 1950). In the paper, he discusses several objections to
his proposed enterprise and his test for intelligence. Which objections still carry weight? Are his
refutations valid? Can y

Written Assignment 2
3.6 Give a complete problem formulation for each of the following. Choose
a formulation
that is precise enough to be implemented.
a. Using only four colors, you have to color a planar map in such a way
that no two
adjacent regions hav

8.19 Assuming predicates Parent(p, q) and Female(p) and constants Joan and Kevin,
with the obvious meanings, express each of the following sentences in first-order logic. (You
may use the abbreviation 1 to mean there exists exactly one.)
a. Joan has a dau

1.10) Is AI a science, or is it engineering? Or neither or both? Explain
Artificial Intelligence is an amalgam of both science and engineering. Generally speaking
science is the theoretical study by creating a hypothesis that needs to tested and to test
s

2.1) Suppose that the performance measure is concerned with just the first T time steps of
the environment and ignores everything thereafter. Show that a rational agent's action may
depend not just on the state of the environment but also on the time step

26.9
How do the potential threats from AI technology compare with those from other computer
science technologies, and to bio-, nano-, and nuclear technologies?
As of now the threat from AI technology isn't alarming enough for us to see it as a threat.
We

6.9 Explain why it is a good heuristic to choose the variable that is most constrained but
thevalue that is least constraining in a CSP search.
A good heuristic will choose the variable that is most constrained if it was looking to make
sure it has a smal

5.4
Describe and implement state descriptions, move generators, terminal tests, utility
functions, and evaluation functions for one or more of the following stochastic
games: Monopoly, Scrabble, bridge play with a given contract, or Texas holdem
poker.
Mo

Exercise 7.8: We have defined four binary logical connectives. Are there any others that
might be useful? How many binary connectives can there be? Why are some of them not
very useful?
Binary connective are complex sentences regarding the truth values of

26.3 In the brain replacement argument, it is important to be able to restore the subject's
brain to normal, such that its external behavior is as it would have been if the operation had
not taken place. Can the skeptic reasonably object that this would r

Exercise 3.1: Explain why problem formulation must follow goal formulation.
Goal formation must precede problem formulation because in goal formation we are
essentially pruning the search space and choosing what it is we are looking for. Once we
know what

a.
The Towers of Hanoi problem with 4 disks I would use a top-down, problem reduction goal tree.
b. The Traveling Salesman problem with 5 cities
I would use a search tree.
c. The map-coloring problem with 4 countries and 3 colors where we apply the constr

Step Node Alpha Beta 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 a b d h h d i i i d b e j j j e k k k e b a c f l l f m f c - - - 5 4 4 4 1 0 - - - - 8 9 4 4 6 7 - 4 4 4 4 - 3 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

1. Are heuristics examples of strong AI methods or weak AI methods? Please explain. Heuristics are definitely examples of strong AI. They are educated guesses, not an exact science. Heuristics use education to help lead them to the correct solution.
2. Th

1. Please discuss why metaheuristic search methods may lead to suboptimal solutions.
This method just changes items until they happen to work in that particular place. Although they work there it may not be there best place. Take the school teaching examp

Breath first search. GOAL STATE = ABC H~D GFE ~ denotes a empty space. NL = Node Level [U] = UP; [D] = Down; [L] = Left; [R] = Right Denotes the direction the blank space was moved to arrive at the current position. Hueristic: Do not search deeper than si

Depth first search. GOAL STATE = ABC H~D GFE ~ denotes a empty space. NL = Node Level [U] = UP; [D] = Down; [L] = Left; [R] = Right Denotes the direction the blank space was moved to arrive at the current position. Hueristic: Do not search deeper than six

1. (see secondary documents)
2. For the t ree below, show your path of nodes and the number of nodes you need to visit if you follow the protocol from r ight to left for the respective search strategies of
a. Breadth-fi rst search 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,

Bob owns 2 Cars
owns Home
Cars parked at Home
drives on Freeway
is a Ford
Ford is a Car
Home is in California
California is a State
Sacramento is capital of California
Freeway
Highway 81 is a Freeway
Route 101 is a Freeway

1. Takes the chicken to side 2 leaving the grain and the wolf on side 1.
2. Leaving the chicken on side 2 by itself he returns to side 1.
3. Taking the grain he goes to side 2 picks up the chicken and leaves the grain.
4. On side 1 he leaves the Chicken b