Chemical composition of organisms
Electronegativity - ability to attract electrons
Isotopes - variants of a particular chemical element
protons/electrons stay the same, neutrons vary
carbon 14 has 6 protons, 8 neutrons (6+8=14), 6 electrons
Bonds - most s
Feedback from those who took the Biology
offered on an as is basis.
1 question about fossils in evolution.which time period
1 question about the difference between all prokaryotic cells vs eukaryotic cells.know
that they don't have prokaryotic cells
The ancient Greek philosophers developed the concept of the atom, calling it the fundamental
particle of matter that could not be broken down. Today we accept that elements are substances
consisting of one type of atom. However, we also discovered that at
A catalyst is a chemical involved in, but not changed by, a chemical reaction.
A catalyst speeds up chemical reactions.
Enzymes act as catalysts for numerous and complex biochemical reactions that take place in
animals, plants, an
Ferns are the largest group of living seedless vascular plants.
Ferns grow in a variety of places and are diverse in their appearance.
All plants undergo a life cycle that takes them through both haploid and diploid generations. I
The nucleus occurs only in eukaryotic cells, and houses many different types of nucleic acids-the
more famous ones being DNA and RNA.
A cell that contains a distinct nucleus is known as a eukaryotic cell, as opposed to
Even up to World War II, it was thought that protein is the carrier of heredity. Friedrich Meischer in
1869 isolated a complex molecule from fish sperm and the pus of open wounds. Since it came from
nuclei, Meischer named this new chemical, nuclein. Subse
The human population is growing exponentially, and not geometrically.
Since the world's population is already very large, increases occur faster.
rate is determined by the birth rate and the death rate of a
A community is the set of all populations that inhabit a certain area. These are often identified with
Communities can have different sizes and boundaries.
Terrestrial (land) and aquatic (water) communities contai
Ecology comes from the greek words oikos (house or place where one lives) and logos (study of).
It means the study of the "house" in which we live. Ecology can be defined more
specifically as the study of the interactionsbetween o
Prior to the scientific discoveries of the past 200 years, creationism from the Book
Of Genesis described how living things came into being.
This was acceptable to some extent because in the short span of written history,
The ATP molecule is the energy currency of the cell.
(Adenosine Triphosphate). In other words, the basic molecule used to convey energy in
a cell is the ATP molecule.
Structurally, ATP consists of the adenine nucleotide plus two o
A chromosome is the microscopic, threadlike part of the cell that carries hereditary information in the
form of genes.
This is important because every species has a characteristic number of chromosomes
All life is characterized by hierarchical levels of organization: Atoms; molecules; organelles; cell;
tissues; organs; organ systems; organism; and lastly the super-organism. The cell is the lowest level
of organization capable of living autonomously.
Structure and Function in Plants
The shoot system in a plant is above ground and includes the organs such as leaves, buds, stems,
flowers and fruits (if the plant has any).
The root system includes those parts of the plant below g
Sexual reproduction permits adaptation through variation, but is biologically costly because the sexes
Difficulties must be overcome by animals that achieve reproductive success with
Behavior is an observable coordinated response to environmental stimuli. Mechanistic questions are
answered by describing how an animal is biologically equipped to behave.
On the other hand, survival value questions ask how behavi
Before Gregor Mendel, the prevailing theory of biological inheritance was that
of blending inheritance, in which the sperm and egg of parent organisms contained a sampling of the
parent's "essence" and that they somehow blended together to form the patter
Written Assignment 7
Identify the male reproductive structures and the function of each.
The male reproductive system has three categories: gonads, accessory organs, and
external genitalia. The gonads are called the testis, they produce sperm and hormo
Experiment 1: Kidney Filtration
1. What specic part of the kidney does the dialysis tubing represent? What is this parts
Dialysis tubing represents the selective permeability of the membranes located in the nephrons of the
Lab Report 10 Blood and the Heart
1. Research the process of erythropoiesis, and explain the role erythropoietin plays. Why is this a popular
doping drug for athletes?
Erythropoiesis is the process by which red blood cells are
Written assignment 5
1. The digestive tract contains four layers. The outermost layer which comes into contact with the
peritoneal cavity is a layer called the serosa. The serosa provides the outside layer for the digestive
tract except where there are op
Written Assignment 6
1. The urinary system is composed of the organs needed to filter and excrete waste from the body.
This starts in the kidneys, which produce urine. The urine travels from the kidneys through the
ureters into the urinary bladder. The bl
Written Assignment 4
1. Explain thoroughly the respiratory defense system.
The respiratory defense system is a filtering system for the air before it reaches the
lungs. When air enters the body, it passes over several different types of epithelial
Lab # 5
In this lab I learned allot more than I initially expected regarding the lymphatic system and how it really
plays an integral part to health and homeostasis. I was previously under the assumption that lymph
nodes were mainly in the neck
During the outline, I will record 7 days worth of eating.
Sleep from 2300-0600
Weight Training- 0645-0800
1 Cups total cereal1 cup 1% milk
1 tablespoon raisins
64oz Grape Diet
BIO-211: Anatomy and Physiology I
Midterm Exam Study Guide
The exam consists of multiple choice, short essay, and short answer questions. The multiple choice
questions will require you to identify, define, and understand the concepts found
1. The effects if the Santa Ana River wooly star were to become extinct would result in san
deposits after flood, food availability for other animals which will make the surrounding
area of ecosystem unbalanced.
1. The basic structure of an atom consist of protons, neutrons and electrons. The protons are
positively charged the neutrons are uncharged, this makes up the nucleus of the atom. The
nucleus is then encircled by
1. Scientists used cell staining and karyotyping to study cell division components, processes
2. The structure of chromosomes provide clues to transmission of genetic information
because the locatio