The solutions of some problems are possible only if the data to be processed are stored in the main
memory, and are processed as a list.
For example, in order to read the test scores of 20 students, compute their average, and find
Introduction to Classes
The concept of a class is the same as that of a structure: it is a user-defined data type that is used to
create a group of variables that may have different data types.
In addition to the data members, a member of a class can al
Pointers and Memory Management in a C+
Pointer Variables and the Address of a Variable
In C+, you can access a variable (memory location) by using its address instead of its name.
In order to do this, you must first define a variable called pointer vari
Linked Lists, Stacks, and Queues
A linked list is a series of connected nodes allocated in the heap.
A node is a structure variable or an object with two types of member variables:
A data part: one or more member variables appropriate to ho
In addition to function main, a program source module may contain one or more other functions.
The execution of the program always starts with function main.
The statements of a function (other than function main) are executed only if that fu
Input / Output in C+
In C+ I/O operations are performed on standard I/O classes (aka stream classes) objects.
An object must also be connected to an input/output device or file on which the physical input/output
operations are performed.
Binary Trees and Hash Tables
An Example of a Binary Tree
A binary tree node is a structure variable or an object with three types of member variables:
A data part: one or more membe
Individual data items to be processed in a program may be related to the same entity. For example,
you may be required to process the following information about a product in a store:
One way to process thes
Certain computer problems are solved by repeating the execution of one or more statements a certain
number of times.
So far, we have implemented the repetition of one or more statements by using iterations or loops:
while loop, for loop, or do