Anthropology: The study of humans and
1. Physical Anthropology
2. Linguistic Anthropology
4. Sociocultural Anthropology
1. Physical Anthropology:
the study of human biological diversity
across time and space
What Is Culture?
Non-biological means by which humans adapt to their
A system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviors,
and artifacts that the members of a society share and
transmit from generation to generation through learning
Molecular and Population Genetics
The Process of Evolution
Based on variation within traits
Variations can be adaptive or maladaptive in a
Adaptive traits will result in greater reproductive
success (more babies) fo
Instructor Ruth, sue
December 5, 2016
Anthropology Project Observing Primates
I observed chimps and gorillas at the zoo, I was there for a short time and I wasnt able to
get much footage or time to really observe them so most of
What makes human language distinctive?
Most social animals have ways of communicating. Some are very
complex, but they are not language.
Hocketts Design Features
Illustrated that human language is an extension of comm
WHAT IS CULTURE?
Generally, we define culture in anthropology as
the set of customs, behaviors, beliefs and ideas
that humans acquire as a member of a society.
Along with the material goods we have that
may differ in different cultures
Culture and the Globalized World
What does it mean to live in a globalized world? When did it start?
Cultural Imperialism or Cultural Hybridization
What cultures are mixing? Is this always a good thing?
Does everyone experienc
Cities, States, and
From Farming to States
As food production gets more complex, people have
to get organized. Then you have
Hydraulic systems (water control)
Long distance routes (roads and connections)
Basics of archaeology
Survey and Excavation
Climate and conditions
Types of archaeology
Homo sapiens have been hunter-gatherers for
roughly 90% of our history.
Only recently do we see food producing strategies
What are primates?
Have body hair, long gestation, live birth,
mammary glands, different types of teeth,
constant body temperature, large brain
size, learning and behavioral flexibility.
Primates have retained some o
Family and Relations
What is kinship?
Social relationships that are culturally
recognized based on marriage and descent.
Family of orientation: family you were born
into - Descent
Family of procreation: family you create for
yourself - Marriage
This is a touchy subjectwhy?
What does creationism use as evidence?
What does evolution use as evidence?
Can these two thoughts co-exist?
Darwin offered natural selection as a wa
What is Anthropology
Basically the study of humans:
Study of material goods people leave behind
Political anthropology is the study of
social power in human society.
Social power falls into three domains:
Interpersonal one individual on another
Organizational how individuals action
Making a Living
How do people in various cultures make a living?
What is the motivation for people to participate in an economic process?
What types of social obligations and expectations revolve around economy?
Art as a part of culture
Cultural anthropologists define art as: that
which is aesthetically pleasing and
perceived with the senses.
Visual art, sculptures, drama, stories,
Art and Religion
Art and religion are connec
How do different cultures perceive
What makes people ill? What helps
them get better?
Medical anthropology is a biocultural
specialization dealing with human
How do perceptions differ?
EVOLUTIONARY THEORY AND HUMAN
HOW DOES EVOLUTION HAPPEN?
There are 4 basic processes that cause evolutionary change to occur.
Selection acts on the
Sources of inequality
Almost all cultures are now part of socially stratified societies. Those stratified
societies have numerous categories of inequalityways in which people are placed
into those hierarchies.
We will fo
THE FIRST HOMININS
The origin of bipedalism is now understood to
have occurred between 10 and 5 million years
Several physical changes occur between
something like a chimpanzee, an
Australopithecine, and the Homo li
5 out of 5 points
We can describe Ardipithecus ramidus ("Ardi") as a transitional species
in human evolution because her _ was/were more like a
modern human's and her _ was/were more like a non-human Great
Ape (e.g. - a gorilla).