Why do we
Studying entire populations is usually far too
time consuming and expensive to be
undertaken. It is also usually unnecessary,
because proper sampling can produce a portrait
nearly as accurate.
Exercise: Navigating the
Chapter 7 - Surveys
How Old Are Surveys?
After the plague the Lord said to Moses
Take a census of all the congregation of
the people of Israel, from twenty old and
-Numbers 26: 1-2
Worst Survey Ever?
If you are paid piece rates, is the quality
C H A P TER 1
Science, Society, and
G etting Started
1. What percentage of Americans are
connected to the Internet?
2. How does internet usage vary
3. Does internet usage hinder social
Shortcom ings ofPersonalexperi
Social Science Paradigms
The Importance of Theory
Can a restaurant or a movie theater
accurately predict presidential elections?
If we observe this in several instances, can we
answer the why question?
In the event that they fail (and they always
Chapter 3, Part I:
The Ethics and Politics of Research
The Origins of Ethical
The Nazi medical experiments
The Tuskegee Syphillis experments
Studies like Milgram and Zimbardo
For more atrocities carried out in the
name of scientific research, go
Research Design and Causation
WHAT HAVE WE
LEARNED SO FAR?
Goals of social science research
How does causation fall into this?
We want a valid, generalizable explanation for why things
TWO TYPES O
Example of Qualitative
I was at lunch standing in line and he
[another male student] came up to my
face and started saying stuff and then
he pushed me. I said . . . Im cool with
you, Im your frie
Quantitative Data Analysis
Frequency Distribution a listing of
all observed scores of a variable and
the frequency (f) of each score (or
Lets make a really simple one. Males
and females in the class
Strengths of Experimental
The most powerful design for testing
Appropriate for explanatory and
Especially research wit
Chapter 2, Part I:
The Process and Problems of Social
The first step in social science research is to
choose a research question.
Where are some of the places we can get research
Our own experience
our own intere
CHAPTER 4, PART II
Reliability and Validity
Precision concerns the fineness of distinctions
Greater precision can be unnecessary
When in doubt though, go with greater precision
Dont confuse precision with accuracy
Ethical Issues in
General Ethical Principles
All researchers are responsible for ensuring
Are well informed
A Methodological Overview
What is a Valid Sociological
Uhhhh pretty much anything
But what questions we choose to ask of a topic is
what makes it sociological, not the topic itself.
Take crime, for example
Common Sense: No!
Conceptualization and Measurement
What is family?
Is family real?
Concept a mental image that summarizes
a set if similar observations, feelings, or
They are mental short cuts that allow us to
group what others may see as div