62. Identify the bodys first line of defense against invading organisms.
Autonomic barriers-such as skin, hairs and cellia. Page 6.31
63. Describe the characteristics of the inflammatory response.
Tissue irritation characterized by pain, swelling redness
1Identify the most common cause of cardiogenic shock.
The heart cannot circulate enough blood for adequate perfusion. The most common cause is MI (single episode,
or accumulation of damage over time.) Other cause are Ischemic heart disease (requires a fun
1How is preload defined? G.29
The pressure under which the ventricle fills
1How does a negative feedback mechanism work? (Page 6.5)
It is the opposite reaction to the bodys action. For example-The body moves in to fight or flight mode the HR
Dysplasia-an alteration of size, shape and organization of a cell due to frequent irritation or inflammation.
1The most common cause of cellular injury is: (Page 6.15)
1Which cells engulf and destroy bacteria and other foreign microorganis
Bicarbonate-carbonic acid system takes place in the red blood cells, which is instant. The respiratory system,
when triggered by the chemoreceptor in the brain, takes minuets, and the renal system takes hours to excrete
excess amounts of H+ or HCO3 (ADH).
1What enzyme is responsible for converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II?
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE)
1Identify the most common cause of hypokalemia in the United States.
Dialasis patiens who miss a treatment, crush/burn injuries, excessive inta
Sodium and water retention can lead to HTN and/or CHF
1List three conditions that can cause lymphatic vessel disease.
PowerPoint and book
Inflammation, chronic obstruction and infection
1Identify and describe the three receptors that continuousl
Hypotonic- water moves into the cell, because of high salt concentrations inside the cell, and low salt
concentrations outside the cell. This causes the cell to burst
1What is diffusion? (Slide 10)
Movement of fluid from an area of high concentration to a
Pathophysiology Take Home
1Where is interstitial fluid found? (Slide 5)
Between the cells, intraocular fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid
1What two components make up extracellular fluid? (Slide 5)
Intravascular fluid (ex: blood plasma) and (20% of our body w
17.What causes pulmonary overpressurization syndrome to develop?
Emergency ascent or quick ascent your lungs may burst due to overpressurization
17.Any diver who loses consciousness immediately following a dive should be assumed to
Look listen feel for 60 sec. CPR, 1 shock if required, IV, warm fluids, adnaced airway
17.What happens if a small amount of water is aspirated into the trachea during a submersion
Spasms sealing off the trachea temporarily.
White, yellow white, mottled blue, hard, cold and without sensation.
17.What occurs when frozen tissues are allowed to thaw slowly?
Partial freezing of melted water may occur, which cause even greater tissue damage.
17.Hypothermia is defined as a core bod
17.Identify the first step in treating a patient with a heat emergency.
Move the patient to a cool enviornment
17.Describe the clinical findings of a patient suffering from heat exhaustion.
Headache, fatigue, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and sometimes abd
17.In situations where the environment is a factor, what is the most accurate means of
determining a persons core temperature?
17.How can the basal metabolic rate be described?
The heat energy produced from the rest
Vascular permeability, bronchoconstriction, decreased force of cardiac contraction, decreased
coronary blood flow, disrythmias.
17.What signs and symptoms are most indicative of upper airway swelling in a patient
experiencing a severe allergic reaction?
17.How does cellular immunity differ from humoral immunity?
Cellular immunity: the body produces special white blood cells called T cells which attack and
Humoral immunity: the body uses the antibodies dissolved in the plasma a
17.Abdominal pain that is associated with polycythemia is usually associated with
17.Explain what occurs during the two stages of DIC.
1) free thrombin and and fibrin deposits in the blood increase, and platelets begin to
1.Production of clotting factors is a function of which organ?
1.Which white blood cell is the primary component of the immune system?
1.Under which circumstance(s) would a transfusion reaction occur?
When a pt. receives a transfusion fr
1. Which type of blood cell is the most predominant?
2. Formed elements of the blood account for what percent of the total blood volume?
3. Which organ stimulates the protein that stimulates red blood cell product
ECG monitoring, calm the patient, %100 O2, pain relief.
1.When is a person considered to be hypertensive?
Greater than 140/90
1.What is the most common symptom directly related to hypertension?
Headache, blurry vision, weakness, epitaxis.
1.How is a hyper
The heart becomes so sevearly damaged that it can no longer pump out enough blood to perfuse body
tissue. Usually when %25 or more of the left ventricle is involved in an MI, or %40 or more of the left
ventricle is infracted
1.How should you position a pa
Dyspnea (worsen when laying down), hypertension, cough with water or foamy pink sputum, wheezing
or crackles, S3 gallop, distended neck veins, pedal or persacral edema.
1.How does a patient with asthma differ from a patient with left-sided heart failure?
1.Which intervention should be performed en route to the hospital during a lengthy transport
of a patient with a suspected myocardial infarction?
Early infarction notice and a 12-lead.
1.What are the most immediate forms of reperfusion therapy for a patie
1.Is the pain associated with a myocardial infarction influenced by deep breathing or body
1.Which groups of people would most likely present with atypical signs of an acute
Diabetics, older people, women and heart tra
1.What ECG finding does a person develop after experiencing an ST-elevation myocardial
1.Explain the differences between stable and unstable angina.
(27.29) Patients with stable angina have pain that is predictable, the onset is the sa
Q-What does it feel like (Crushing pain, dull pain, achy pain, tingling, numbness, shooting pain,
stabbing pain, etc)?
R-Does it move anywhere else? Is it located anywhere else as well?
S-On a scale of 1-10, 1 no pain, and 10 worst pain ever felt, what is