Notes PHI 212 The Doctrine of the Mean
The Doctrine of the Mean: Examples
So every virtue is the mean between some excess and some defect. For
Courage the mean between rashness and cowardliness
Pride: the mean between empty vanity and undue hu
Notes PHI 212 Problems for Utilitarianism
Problems for Utilitarianism
1. Hedonism is degrading:
if a pig can live a life completely satisfied, while a morally concerned
and thoughtful man like Socrates cannot ever be so satisfied, isnt
the life of the p
Notes PHI 212 Deontologists
Deontologists like rules.
A rule tells us whether an action is right or wrong just on the basis of
what kind of action it is, rather than on the basis of its
For example, Never kill the innocent.
Notes PHI 212 Aristotle
Lived from 384-322 B.C.
A student of Plato who surpassed his master.
Thought to be the greatest philosopher ever.
The Nicomachean Ethics, Metaphysics, Categories, Physics and many
Developed virtue ethics
Notes PHI 212 The Categorical Imperative
The Categorical Imperative
Not Hypothetical: The categorical imperative is not hypothetical.
A Hypothetical imperative: is conditional on some want or desire.
For example, If you want to go to heaven do X.
Notes PHI 212 Utilitarianism
its two parts
Any version of Utilitarianism (including Mills version) is composed of two other
We determine whether an act is right or wrong by looking at its
Causes and effects
Notes PHI 212 The Good Will
The Good will: Kant thought that the only thing good without qualification is a
To be good without qualification
Acting for the sake of duty: Kant thought that for one to act for the right reasons
he must act alway
Notes PHI 212 Meta-ethics
Is it first, second or third order ethics?
The study of the nature of _.
Here we ask:
What are moral judgments?
Here we analyze the concept of a moral judgment.
Normative Ethics: a
Notes PHI 212 Moral Evaluations
Value claim (also called value judgments):
non-factual claims that assert that some moral property is instantiated in
some object or action or event.
Examples of value claims:
A moral argument is one which asserts as its
Notes PHI 212 Relativism
A note about
Moral relativism: A very popular view in ethics is moral relativism.
Confusion: often times, the following 2 claims are confused:
1. What is believed to be right and wrong may differ from group to group,