Notes The Middle Ages Introduction
Changes in Western Europe
Repeated invasions and constant warfare ended the Western Roman Empire:
Disruption of Trade-Merchants faced invasions from land and sea.
Businesses collapse and money becomes scarce.
Notes The Middle Ages The Church & The Holy Roman Empire
The Church & The Holy Roman Empire
After the death of Charlemagne, the Holy Roman Empire was the strongest
kingdom that arose from the ruins of his empire.
When Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne em
Notes The Middle Ages The Crusades
In 1099, crusaders conquered Jerusalem and forced Jews and Muslims to
convert to Christianity, leave the city, or die.
Fighting continued in the Holy Land between crusaders and Muslims, who were
Notes The Middle Ages England Develops
By the early 800s, there were many small Anglo-Saxon kingdoms throughout the
former Roman province Britain.
For centuries, invaders from various regions in Europe landed on English shores.
Notes The Middle Ages Education of a Knight
Education of a Knight
At around 21, a squire became a full-fledged knight.
Knights were to abide by a complex set of ideals, which became known as the
code of chivalry.
Later in the Middle Ages battles were o
Notes The Middle Ages The Catholic Church
The Catholic Church
The Catholic Church was the only church in Europe during the Middle
Ages, and it had its own laws and large income.
Church leaders such as bishops and archbishops sat on the king's council
Notes The Middle Ages Education
Between prayers, the monks read or copied religious texts and music. Monks
were often well educated and devoted their lives to writing and learning.
Pilgrimages were an important part of religious li
Notes The Middle Ages The Kitchens of Peasant Homes
The Kitchens of Peasant Homes
In simpler homes where there were no chimneys, the medieval kitchen consisted
of a stone hearth in the center of the room.
This was not only where the cooking took place,
Notes The Middle Ages The Myth
We think of knights in shining armor, lavish banquets, wandering minstrels, kings,
queens, bishops, monks, pilgrims, and glorious pageantry.
In film and in literature, medieval life seems heroic, entertaining, and romantic
Notes The Middle Ages The Peasants
At the lowest level of society were the peasants,
also called serfs or villains.
The lord offered his peasants protection in exchange for living and working
on his land
Hard Work & High Taxes