Concept: Most macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers
1. Polymers are longs chain molecules made of repeating subunits called
monomers. Examples: Starch is a polymer composed of glucose monomers.
Proteins are polymers composed of amino acid monom
Concept: Acidic and basic conditions affect living organisms
1. The pH scale runs between 0 and 14 and measures the relative acidity and
alkalinity of aqueous solutions.
2. Acids have an excess of H+ ions and a pH below 7.0 [H+] > [OH-]
3. Bases have an e
2. Moderation of temperature is possible because of waters high specific heat.
a. Specific heat is the amount of heat required to raise or lower the temperature
of a substance by 1 degree Celsius. Relative to most other materials, the
temperature of water
Concept: Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to four
1. Carbon is unparalleled in its ability to form molecules that are large, complex
and diverse. Why?
a. It has four valence electrons.
b. It can form up to 4 covalent bonds.
Concept: The formation of molecules depend on chemical bonding
a. Chemical bonds are defined as interactions between valence electrons of
different atoms. Atoms are held together by chemical bonds to form molecules.
b. Covalent bond occurs w
Concept: The polarity of water molecules results in hydrogen bonding
a. The structure of water is the key to its special properties. Water is made up
of one atom of oxygen and two atoms of hydrogen, bonded to form a molecule.
b. Water molecules are polar.
Concept: Four emergent properties of water contribute to Earths fitness
-The key to each of these properties is hydrogen bonds. This is what makes
water so unique.
1. Cohesion. Cohesion is the linking of like molecules. Think water molecule
iii. In polar covalent bonds, one atoms has greater electronegativity than the
other, resulting in an unequal sharing of electrons. See the figure below. Note
that in Figure 4 and note that within each molecule of H2O the electrons are
unequally shared re
Concept: An elements properties depend on the structure of its atoms
a. Atoms are the smallest unit of an element that still retains the properties of
the element. Atoms are made of up of protons, neutrons and electrons.
a. Protons are positively charged
Concept: Matter Consists of Chemical Elements in pure form and in
combinations called compounds
a. Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass.
b. An element is a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances
by chemical reactions. Exam