Notes Environmental Anthropology Neo-Evolutionism and Cultural Ecology
Neo-Evolutionism and Cultural Ecology
A major theoretical shift occurred in American anthropology in the late
1940s and 1950s
antievolutionary perspective of the Boasian school compe
Notes Environmental Anthropology Horticulture
s Emerged in the last several thousand years
s The cultivation of domesticated crops in gardens using hand tools
s Crop yields can be great and support denser populations than foraging
Notes Environmental Anthropology Agriculture
s Intensive strategy of production
more labor, use of fertilizers, control of water supply, use of animals
s Permanent settlements
s 3 main types
Notes Environmental Anthropology Cultural Ecology
Cultures that shared similar core features belonged to the same culture type
Having identified these culture types Steward then compared and sorted them
into a hierarchy arranged by comp
Notes Environmental Anthropology Cultural Materialism
Cultural Materialism is based on two key assumptions about societies. First, the various
parts of society are interrelated. When one part of society changes, other parts must
Notes Environmental Anthropology Humans and Ecosystems
Humans and Ecosystems
s ECOSYSTEMS including human systems, tend towards HOMEOSTASIS.
They tend to resist change and remain in equilibrium.
s SOURCES OF ECOLOGICAL CHANGE:
Notes Environmental Anthropology Intro
Economic Cultural Anthropologists
s Look cross-culturally at a societys way of producing food and goods
s Gather data and categorize society according to their mode of production
(These categories blend and overlap)
Notes Environmental Anthropology Types of Hunter-Gatherers: Collectors
Types of Hunter-Gatherers: Collectors
s Complex Hunter-Gatherers (Collectors):
.May exhibit high population density
.Sometimes live in villages (permanent camps) for all or most
Notes Environmental Anthropology Leslie White
For White, the predominant themes of cultural evolution (as manifest in human history)
increasing energy-capture per capita
increasing complexity of material and social culture
Notes Environmental Anthropology Julian Steward
Julian Steward (1902-1972)
Steward devoted most of his energy to the study of the environmental adaptation
of specific societies.
He worked with the Shoshoni, the Pueblo, and the Carrier Indians in British
Notes Physical Anthropology Hominids
Humans are hominids, belonging to the taxonomic family Hominidae.
Bipedalism, walking on two legs, is a critical feature of the hominids.
Humans are members of the Order Primates, the group of mammals that
Notes Physical Anthropology Helen Fisher
Helen Fisher Studies Brains in Love
Considers three types of love
Antidepressants may inhibit love
LA Times, July 30, 2007
Notes Physical Anthropology Sam Dunn
used anthropological training in heavy metal documentary
Takes holistic view:
Main obstacle was convincing artists he was sympathetic.
Notes Physical Anthropology Primate Paleontology
The study of the primate fossil record that extends back to the beginning of
primate evolution some 60 million years ago (mya).
Virtually every year, fossil-bearing beds in North Amer
Notes Physical Anthropology Primatology
Yahaya Alamasi, a member of the senior field staff at Gombe National Park,
Alamasi is recording behaviors in free-ranging chimpanzees.
The study of nonhuman primates.
Because nonhuman prima
Notes Physical Anthropology Definition
Anthropology is the study of human beings in a holistic manner.
Holism means appreciating totalities as more than mere combinations of
There are two ways anthropology is holistic.
Notes Physical Anthropology Culture is Social
Culture is Social
Living in social groups that transmit culture is the adaptive strategy of humans.
All humans have learned transmitted skills for acquiring food called subsistence
Cultures are co
Notes Physical Anthropology Introduction
THE SCOPE OF ANTHROPOLOGY
What anthropologists have you heard of?
What did they study?
Anthropologists You may have Heard of
Notes Physical Anthropology Other Prominent Anthropologists
Other Prominent Anthropologists
Kwakiutl and Race
Notes Human Evolution Old World Monkeys Distribution
Old World Monkeys Distribution
Present-day Old World monkeys
are distributed in the tropical regions
of Africa and Asia
and are thought to have evolved
from a primitive anthropoid ancestor,
Notes Human Evolution Early History of Anthropoids
Early History of Anthropoids
Much of our knowledge about
the early evolutionary history of anthropoids
comes from fossils found in the Fayum district,
a small desert area southwest of Cairo, Egypt
Notes Human Evolution Introduction
The Cradle of Mankind
Olduvai Gorge on the eastern Serengeti Plain,
is often referred to as
The Cradle of Mankind
because of many important hominid discoveries there
Who are we?
Who are we?
Notes Human Evolution Hominoid Lineage
The hominoid lineage
diverged from Old World monkeys
sometime before the Miocene,
but exactly when is still being debated
It is generally accepted, however,
that hominoids evolved in Africa,
Notes Human Evolution Prosimians Declined
Prosimians Declined in Cooler Climate
As the continents moved northward
during the Cenozoic
and the climate changed from warm tropical
to cooler midlatitude conditions,
the prosimian population decreased
Notes Human Evolution Dryopithecines
The first group, the dryopithecines,
evolved in Africa during the Miocene
and subsequently spread to Eurasia,
following the collision between the two continents
The dryopithecines were a varied grou
Notes Human Evolution What Are Primates
What Are Primates?
Primates are difficult to characterize as an order
because they lack the strong specializations
found in most other mammalian orders
We can, however, point to several trends
in their evolutio
Notes Human Evolution Understanding in Flux
Understanding in Flux
So where does this leave us, evolutionarily speaking?
At a very exciting time as we seek to unravel the history of our species
Our understanding of our genealogy
is presently in flux,
Notes Human Evolution Two Lineages
Although many pieces are still missing,
particularly during critical intervals
in the African hominoid fossil record,
molecular DNA as well as fossil evidence indicates
that the dryopithecines, African