General Biology 1
Unit 1, Chapter 1
All living organisms share common characteristics. Understanding these few fundamental properties
allows us to comprehend many specific phenomena.
DNA is fundamental molecule of life enabling organisms t
General Biology 1
Lecture Notes-Unit 1, Chapter 2
Chapter 2- The Nature of Molecules
All of the fundamental characteristics of life are possible because of the interactions of molecules.
Therefore an understanding of chemistry is essential t
The Chemical Building
Blocks of Life
Paramecium are single-celled organisms that live in freshwater. What type of macromolecule would you expect its outermost
membrane to be made of? Explain.
When fossil fuels are burned sulphur-dioxide and nitr
What is surface area : volume ratio?
Why does this ratio matter to organisms?
Surface area : volume
Size of Cells
Surface area to volume ratio
Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Have Different Surface area to volume ratios.
Prokaryotic & Eu
Notes Microbiology Impact of Infectious Disease
Average life span:
- Bronze age 26 yrs
- Medieval Europe (400 1500 ad) 30 yrs
- Early 20th century 50 64 yrs
- Now world average 67.2 years
Impact of Infectious Disease
a.k.a. Black Plague &
Notes Microbiology Worldwide Infectious Diseases
Worldwide Infectious Diseases Affecting Health Sciences
Increasing number of emerging diseases (SARS, AIDS, hepatitis C, viral
Other diseases previously not linked to microorganisms now are
Notes Microbiology The Modern Age of Microbiology
The Modern Age of Microbiology
How Do Genes Work?
Recombinant DNA technology
Recombinant DNA Technology
Genes in microbes, plants, and animals manip
Notes Microbiology Introduction
Microbes & You
Q: Did you always have them?
Q: Are they everywhere on your body?
Q: Are normal flora ever harmful?
Opportunistic Pathogens (part-time bad guys)
Pathogens (full-time bad guys)
Notes Microbiology Healthy immune system
A healthy immune system is responsible for:
1. Surveillance of the body
2. Recognition of foreign material
3. Destruction of entities deemed to be foreign
Production of blood cells occurs in the red bo
Notes Microbiology The Nature of Host Defenses
The Nature of Host Defenses
1st line of defense intact skin
mucous membranes & their secretions
2nd line of defense phagocytic white blood cells
3rd line of de
Notes Microbiology Traditional Whittaker Classification
Traditional Whittaker Classification
Metabolism (Biochemical Activity)
Fatty Acid Profile
Notes Microbiology The Scope of Microbiology
The Scope of Microbiology
Microbiology: The study of living things too small to be seen without
Microorganisms or microbes- these microscopic organisms
Commonly called germs, viruses, agents bu
Notes Microbiology Kochs Experiments
Simple staining techniques
First photomicrograph of bacteria
First photomicrograph of bacteria in diseased tissue
Techniques for estimating CFU/ml
Use of steam to sterilize media
Use of Petri d
Notes Microbiology Microorganisms
Unicellular or multicellular
Simple reproductive structures
Categorized on the basis of pigmentation, storage products, and
composition of cell wall
Bacteria and Archaea
Unicellular and lack nu
Notes Biology Of Aids THREATS IN PAKISTAN
There are serious risk factors that put Pakistan in danger of facing a rapid spread
of the epidemic if immediate and vigorous action is not taken:
Outbreaks Among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs):
The number of drug de
Notes Biology Of Aids HIV
WHAT IS HIV?
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
A unique type of virus (a retrovirus)
Invades the helper T cells (CD4 cells) in the body of the host (defense
mechanism of a person)
Threatening a global epidemic.
Notes Biology Of Aids Inadequate Blood Transfusion Screening
Inadequate Blood Transfusion Screening and High Level of Professional Donors:
It is estimated that 40 percent of the 1.5 million annual blood transfusions in
Pakistan are not screened for HIV. I
Notes Biology Of Aids EPIDEMIC OF HIV
According to UNAIDS estimates, some 70,000 to 80,000 persons, or 0.1 percent
of the adult population in Pakistan, are infected with HIV.
Officially reported cases are, however, much lower. Until September 2004, only
Notes Biology Of Aids WORLD BANK RESPONSE
WORLD BANK RESPONSE
The World Bank is the largest financer of HIV/AIDS programs in Pakistan.
It has assisted the governments HIV/AIDS efforts through funding the second
Social Action Program (1998-2003).
Notes Biology Of Aids UNDER-REPORTING
Until September 2004, only 300 cases of full-blown AIDS and another 2300 cases of
HIV infection were reported to the National AIDS Control Program.
The reasons for under reporting are:
Social stigma a
Notes Biology Of Aids NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS
NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS
54 NGOs are involved in HIV/AIDS public awareness and in the care and support
of persons living with HIV/AIDS.
Also working on education and prevention interventions tar
Notes Biology Of Aids Testing Options for HIV
No name is used
Unique identifying number
Results issued only to test recipient
Urine Western Blot
As sensitive as testing blood
Safe way to screen for HIV
Can cause fals
Notes Biology Of Aids PRIMARY PREVENTION
Five ways to protect yourself?
New shaving/cutting blades
It is the most effective method of not acquiring HIV/AIDS.
Notes Biology Of Aids Modes of HIV/AIDS
Through Bodily Fluids
IntraVenous Drug Abuse
Without sterilization Increases the chances of contracting HIV
Notes Bio 106 Alcohol Effects
When Youre Plastered
There are plenty of words to describe it:
bladdered, slaughtered, mullered, legless or as drunk as a skunk.
Call it what you will, if you keep drinking beyond the early warning signs you're heading
Notes Bio 106 Cigarette Smoke and Disease
Proving the links between smoking and lung disease
Serious widespread smoking did not start until the second half of the 20 th century.
In the 1950s there was a lung cancer epidemic.
There are now over 35,000 d
Notes Bio 106 Benign or malignant
Benign or malignant
Benign tumours do not spread from their site of origin, but can crowd out
(squash) surrounding cells
eg brain tumour, warts.
Malignant tumours can spread from the original site and cause secondary
Notes Bio 106 Alcohol
A drug is a substance that alters the way the human body works
Alcohol is the most commonly used drug in Britain
Alcoholic drinks vary in the percentage of alcohol that they contain
Absorption of Alcohol
Notes Bio 106 Cancer
Cancer is one of the most common diseases in the developed world:
1 in 4 deaths are due to cancer
1 in 17 deaths are due to lung cancer
Lung cancer is the most common cancer in men
Breast cancer is the most common cancer i