Chapter 15: Gustation: Perceiving Tastes and Flavors
The Chemical Senses
o Underlies ability to perceive tastes
o Plays important role assessing quality of materials that are allowed to enter
o Is more com
Chapter 4 Recognizing Visual Objects
A Few Basic Considerations
o Object Familiarity
o Visual system must match a mental representation of an object
If the object is familiar (your briefcase), it is recognized by matching
its representation wit
Chapter 14: Olfaction: Perceiving Odors
What is an odor?
o The olfactory system detects molecules of odorants if they are sufficiently
concentrated to stimulate receptors; olfaction is an analytic sense
What is an odorant?
Chapter 3: The Visual Brain
From Eye to Brain
Neural signals originating in the brain travel along pathways deeper into the brain
through increasingly complex networks
Two major characteristics overreach the organizational principles of visual
Chapter 11: The Auditory Brain and Perceiving Auditory Scenes
Main and Secondary Ascending Auditory Pathways from Cochlea to Cortex
The Auditory Brain and Perceiving Auditory Scenes
Auditory Pathways are complex
o While most of the auditory inf
Chapter 10 Sound and the Ear
Sources of Sound
Sound is initiated by movement that disturbs air molecules
Molecules collide with other air molecules resulting in air pressure that propagates
outward from source
As the sound wave travels outwar
Chapter 5 Perceiving Color
o How does the visual system enable humans to see color
o Objects do no possess color in themselves
o Different organisms may see color differently
o Color is perceptual experience evoked by wavelength
Chapter 13: The Body Senses
The Body Senses
Are grouped under the term touch; one of the five senses
We can extend the traditional five senses by other senses
o Skin deformation
o Muscle stretch and joint angle
o Object sh
Sensation v. Perception
Sensation the initial steps of the perceptual process whereby physical features of
the environment are converted (via senses) into electrochemical signals that are
sent to the brain for processing
Chapter 12: Perceiving Speech and Music
Perceiving Speech and Music
o Deals with how language sounds are perceived
o Involves relationship between perception and production
o If a sound cannot be heard, it is unlikely that it
Test Review #2
Object Recognition II
What is a strength of fMRI?
Tells us WHERE a cognitive process is taking place.
What is a weakness of fMRI?
Takes a longgggg time (approximately 3 seconds)
What is a strength of electrophysiology?
Very quick (.5
Depth perception - ability to accurately perceive and interact with the 3D world, even though
the retina only acts in 2D.
To do this, the brain interacts with 3 different types of information: called Depth Cues
Physics envy - when a social scientist feels that their discipline isnt rigorous enough
Common in psychology - perception that psych isnt a real science
Why? We do hippy things like create a color chart for babies
Psychophysics is the op
Object recognition - knowing what stuff is by looking at it
Some objects are cut off, some are obscured
Able to recognize buildings, even though no two buildings are exactly
Also, can recognize all t
Neuro Review: Perception in the Brain
Levels of neuroanatomy
Cellular (small) level - neurons
Neurons are 5 micrometers
B Macro (large) level - anatomical regions (aka big chunks of the brain)
Big enough to see with your eyes
A Neuron is
Vision in the Brain II
There exists 30+ visual areas of the brain.
Theme 1: The further into the visual system in the brain we get, the more complex the percept is
Ex. V1 Theme 2: Most areas we encounter are either "what" or "where" areas
Work effortlessly - dont require conscious effort
Very reliable - eyes do a good job of providing us with information
Anatomy of the eyes
Eye stimulated by light in the visual spectrum
To be seen must be the right wavelength (in be
Color Vision I
Light is the part of the spectrum that we can see
Reds are the longest wave lengths, blues are the shortest.
Figured out by isaac Newton in 1672 (prism experiment)
*Most light is a combination of multiple wavelengths, it is rarely just
Test Review #3
What are some powerful visual illusions and how do they work?
Luminance Illusions - Hard to believe that A and B in the checkerboard are the same
Lightness constancy - our brain doesnt want to be tricked by shadows
Vision in the Brain I
Colorblindness: Caused by problems with the cones.
Medium wave cones respond best to greenish; long wave cones respond best to reddish
If none of the cones re working, you would see gray
Red/Green colorblindness is the mos
1. What and where are the parts of the eye?
2. What does each part do?
3. 1) What is Psychophysics?
4. 2) What is an example of a psychophysics experiment?
5. 3) What is an example of a time in real life when psychophysics might matter?
Neuroanatomy- Perception in the Brain
1. What are the parts of the neuron?
2. What and where are the lobes of the brain?
3. What and where are the primary sensory cortices?
4. What is a visual evoked potential and what does it look like?
Tuesday, January 28, 14
1) What is Psychophysics?
2) What is an example of a psychophysics experiment?
3) What is an example of a time in real life when psychophysics
Physics envy: when scientists dont feel that their discipli
Hearing in the Brain I
What are the parts of the neural auditory system?
What are the functions of each part of the neural auditory system?
What are some similarities and differences between the neural systems for vision and audition?
Color Vision I : Factors that contribute to color vision but are independent from your visual
What is the relationship between wavelengths of light and color?
What are hue, saturation, and brightness?
What is additive color?
What is subtractive co
What is trichromacy?
What is a metamer?
What is a metamer experiment?
What is color invariance?
What is lightness constancy?
A. Because the fact that our color vision is accomplished by mixinf information from 3
types of cones.
Object Recognition II
Extra Credit: Our extra credit opportunities will be arranged around the exams, to hopefully
allow you to make the best informed, most strategic, decisions about whether to do them. Sadly,
some of your fellow athletes suffered brain
Object Recognition I
What is object recognition
What is view invariance
What is a heuristic
What are some example visual heuristics
What are some possible functions of area V2?
Object recognition is when we extract information about an image. Matching vis
What is depth perception?
What are oculomotor, monocular, and binocular depth cues?
What are the sub types of each of the types of depth cue?
What is stereopsis?
What is an anaglyph?
What is a Random Dot Stereogram?
What is the correspond