Clavicle and Scapula
2 bones that make up shoulder joint.
Pectoral girdle = clavicle + scapula
Humans and apes have elongated scapula allowing our arms to be on our side.
Length of clavicle determines movement of shoulder joint.
Age Estimation from the Skeleton
Immature Stage= birth to about 20 yrs
Age estimated based on developmental criteria
1.) Dental formation
2.) Appearance and fusion of the skeletal epiphyses
3.) Length of long bone.
Mature Stage= 20+ years
Age estimated ba
-role is primarily weight-bearing
2 arches: longitudinal (heel to toe) and transverse (medial to lateral)
Walking cycle: stance phase (leg is on ground) and swing phase (leg is off ground)
-the two legs will be in opposite phases
-begins with knee st
Different kind of teeth (unlike reptiles)
o Different teeth for different steps in food processing
Adult human has 32 teeth
Each jaw half has: 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars and 3 molars
o (3rd molar is wisdom teeth)
2 sets of
November 14, 2012
Wrist and Hand
5 fingers (primitive)
Precision grip: tip to tip.
27 bones in wrist and hand
Very few features, more about ability to ID the bone.
8 Carpal Bones
Hand (Manus) 19 bones
Thumb only has two phalanges (whereas fingers
Upper limb=pectoral limb
Connects with pectoral girdle.
Made of humerus, radius and ulna (long bones) as well as carpus and manus
Ancient prototype modified.
Largest bone in upper limb
Humeral Head (medial) articulates with glenoid fo
Thorax: Sternum & Ribs
Main part of axial skeleton
Thoracic cage: bony structure that provides muscle attachment and protects vital
Comprised of thoracic vertebrae, ribs, and sternum
Where the r
Pelvis includes Pelvic Girdle
Joins the axial skeleton with the lower limbs
Hip Joint is here
Supports and protects abdominal and pelvic organs.
Modified in humans for bipedal form of locomotion.
Firmly fixed to axial skeleton by the sternum.
Sex Determination from the Skeleton
The powerpoint will be online and scoring scales and other info in book
Biological profile of individual: sex, age of death, stature
3 basic identity features
especially useful in forensic context
Lower limb has similar overall structure to arm: one
proximal, two distal. But there is an extra bone here, the
patella (comparable to the olecranon on the ulna).
Longest bone in body
Specialized for bipedal locomotion
Supports all of