Whites are more likely to receive a diagnosis of bipolar disorder than
o Whites tend to be diagnosed with bipolar disorder, whereas African
Americans are more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia.
Psychotherapy can provide support, education, and guidance to
individuals with bipolar disorder
o Cognitive behavioral therapy
o Family-focused therapy
o Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT)
Women and MDD
Women are more likely to have this disorder having a 1.5 to threefold
higher rate than men. Women are:
o More self conscious about bodily changes during puberty
o Exposed to rising and falling levels of reproductive hormon
Learned Helplessness Theory/Hopelessness Theory (Seligman)
Depression in humans is similar to learned helplessness in laboratory
animals who remain in unpleasant situations when they are able to
o Related the unpleasantness to
Role of the Hypothalamus
Hypothalamus: regulates certain metabolic processes and other
o researchers have located two separate areas that help control
eating in mice.
Later Hypothalamus: lesions caused reduced foo
Involves a constant obsession with eating and desire for food
that leads to large consumptions of food in short periods of time
Due to an intense fear of gaining weight, self-induced vomiting
and other purging techniqu
(Chapter 8 last chapter on exam)
- Modern sex therapy approaches typically involves:
o Assessing and conceptualizing the problem
o Education about sexuality
o Emotion identification and attitude change
o Elimination of perfo
What triggers a suicide?
Stressful events and situations
- Social isolation
- Serious illness
- Abusive or repressive environment
- Occupational stress
Mood and thought changes
Alcohol and other drug use
Typically -Specifiers of Sexual Dysfunction
Can be classified to the following dimensions:
o lifelong vs. acquired
o generalized vs. situational
o Due to psychological factors vs. Due to combined factors
Medical Use of Marijuana
For centuries, cannabis played a respected role in medicine.
o Cannabis is found to help patients with chronic pain or
asthma, reduce nausea and vomiting of cancer patients in
chemotherapy and improve appetites
Chapter 6: Bipolar and Depressive Disorders
Characterized by various degrees of depressed or manic moods.
Formally known as the mood disorders in DSM-IV-TR
o Mood disorders: Syndromes whose predominant feature is
disturbance in mood.
Characterized by a disruption of the normal integration of consciousness,
memory, identity, emotion, perception, body representation, motor
control and behavior.
o A f
Genetics has become increasingly popular in the study of psychological disorders.
- Each gene is a section of DNA and together genes make an organism unique
- Genes can exist in several different forms (alleles), which creates
Chapter 1 (cont. from notebook)
Emphasis is on the value and agency of human beings
Focus is on self-actualization (People are motivated to achieve their
Abnormal Behavior associated with ps
Chapter 3 (cont. from notebook)
Identifies potential psychological problems or predicts the risk of future
problems if someone is not referred for further assessment or
Should be sensitive and specific
Anxiety, Obsessive Compulsive Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders
What is anxiety?
An emotion that is characterized by physical symptoms (faster
heartbeat, feelings of tension) and thoughts or worries that something
bad will happen.
Diagnosis and Classification
Disorder vs. Diagnosis
A disorder is an injury, a malfunction, and infection or something that causes distress or
impairs the patients functional status.
A clinical diagnosis is an informed opinion that a ce
Hoarding Disorder (cont.)
Difficulty discarding possessions results in cutter in living areas and
substantially compromises their intended use.
o Specifier: With excessive acquisition (keeps items needed or
for which there is no availab
Generalized anxiety disorder
Refers to a sudden, discrete period of intense anxiety and physical arousal
usually accompanied by feelings of impending doom
Treatment of these disorders uses several different approaches including
biological, behavioral, and cognitive behavioral, and psychodynamic
o Found to be efficacious with remission rates around 70% amon
Conversion Disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder)
Symptoms include altered voluntary motor or sensory dysfunction.
Clinical findings provide evidence of incompatibility recognized
neurological or medical conditions.
(ON TEST 3)
Treatment of Gender Dysphoria
Cognitive behavioral, psychoanalytic and other approaches have
been used to increase acceptance and coping with negative affect
Sex reassignment surgery
A surgical procedure that changes a per