Influences on Drug Use
Adopted individuals are more susceptible to alcohol dependence if one or both biological parents
have a history of it
Having an identical rather than fraternal twin with alcohol dependence puts one at increased risk
for alcohol pr
Solitary sleep has only been happening here for about 70 years
Co-Sleeping is really common even in our culture
What issues have come about because of infant solitary sleep?
o Comfort objects
o Nightmares/night terrors
o Bedtime ritu
Drugs and Consciousness
Psychoactive Drugs- a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods through their
actions at the neural synapses.
Dependence and Addiction
Tolerance- the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requ
Dream- a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind.
Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities and incongruities, and for the
dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and lat
Insomnia- high rate in our culture
o Cant fall asleep
o Fall asleep -> cant stay asleep
o Wake too early
o If persists for 30 days or more: good idea to get evaluated at sleep clinic
o Correctible disorder
o Sleep Hygiene- suggestions suc
Audition- the sense or act of hearing [Highly Adaptive]
The Stimulus Input: Sound Waves
He amplitude of wavelengths determines their loudness
Frequency- the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time (ex. Per
Human Factor Psychology- a branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and
how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use
Curse of knowledge is when you know a thing and its hard to mentally stimulate what
Transduction- conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation,
the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into
neural impulses our brains can interpret.
Wavelength- the distance from the peak of one lig
The Brain and Consciousness
Cognitive Neuroscience- the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition
(including perception, thinking, memory, and language).
Even in a motionless body, researchers found that the brain and the mind
Smell is a chemical sense- molecules of a substance carried in the air reach a cluster of 5
million or more receptor cells at top of each nasal cavity.
o These olfactory receptor cells respond selectively and instantly alert the brain
2. To begin with, the authors narrowed down the focus of their study to nervous system growth
factors because they were found to be effective in preventing nerve death in animal models of
Alzheimers Disease. The authors of t