Recognition and Free recall
Recognition- we recognize people and things.
Free Recall- we have to recall people's names, or other things, all the time; we recall all day long.
Serial position task: Theoretical explanation for this is that during the beg
Learning by Observation
Observational Learning- learning by observing others
Modeling- the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
Even as 2 1/2 year olds, when many of our mental abilities were near those of chimpanzees, we
When Do We Learn Language?
Infants start without language, yet by 4 months of age, babies can discriminates speech sounds
and read lips.
This period marks beginning of development of babies' receptive language, their ability to
Intuition's Perils and Powers
Intuition's Dozen Deadly Sins
Hindsight Bias- looking back on events, we
falsely surmise that we knew it all along
Evidence of Intuition's Powers
Blindsight- brain-damaged persons' "sight
unseen" as their bodies react to thin
We dont just retrieve memories, we reweave them: "Information acquired after an event alters
memory of the event."
Misinformation Effect- incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.
o Seen in Loftus' experimen
Retrieval: Getting Information Out
Recall- a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned
earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test
Recognition- a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items
Thorndike and the Law of Effect
The strength of a response is determined by the consequences
o We behave, there are consequences to what we do and they determine whether our
responses are strengthened or weakened
Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning and B
Law of Effect- Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become
more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
Operant Chamber- in operant conditioning researc
o Cannot be done on purpose
o Freud: you have people with traumatic experience that threatens to overwhelm their ego,
defense mechanism is repression. Take threatening memory and push it out of conscious
awareness into unconscious; comm
Encoding: Getting Information In
How We Encode
Automatic Processing- unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and
frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
Effortful Processing- encoding that requires