Identify current situation
Obstacles to Problem Solving and Making Faulty Judgments
Fixation (Mental Set)
o Ex. The nine dot problem (gestalt)
Exaggerating the improbable
3. The parents were not right when they refused to allow their children to participate in the
experiment because the numbers from the previous experiment only differed slightly by 3. In
addition, the participants that got polio were taken from
Animal Form and Function
A. Form/Function co-evolve: a cell needs to be flat to be an effective gas exchange surface
inner and outer environments (e.g. simple squamous cells lining the alveolar sacs
of the lungs).
Columnar or cuboi
Emotional Intelligence- the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.
4 components include the abilities to:
o Perceive emotions (to recognize them in faces, music, and stories")
o Understand emotions (to predict
Genetics and Heritability
o Genetics (nature)- genetically programmed to like sweets; even babies prefer it before
o Adapted to survive famine conditions: high calorie food options are associated with sweet
taste, so we prefer them-it
Energy source variability different energy sources demand different, mostly incompatible
adaptations to access them, e.g., evolutionary designs of plants vs. animals: no animal is able
carry on photosynthesis, and no plants eat other organisms. Carnivo
What is Intelligence?
Intelligence Test- a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them
with those of others, using numerical scores
Intelligence is a socially constructed concept: cultures deem "intelligent" whatever attribu
Motivation- a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.
Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology
Instinct- a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is
o Ex. Infants' innate reflexes for
The Dynamics of Intelligence
Stability or Change?
There are no reliable indicators of infant's later intelligence, but by age 4, children's performance
on intelligence tests begins to predict their adolescent and adult scores.
After about age 7, intelli
The IQ Controversy (still psychometric approach)
o Biology is destiny
Hernstein & Murray, 1994
The bell curve-title reflects distribution of IQ tests
Suggested that people who are above the average do better in
Also suggested that this was biolog
Octopus cells can be found in a region of the pasteroventral cochlear nucleus called the
octopus cell area (OCA). In humans, a prominent auditory pathway of octopus cells travels from
the superior paraolivary nucleus t