FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
Biology and the Tree of Life
Louis Pasteurs Experiment: He wanted to determine whether microorganisms could arise
spontaneously in a nutrient brother or whether they appear only when a broth is exposed to a
source of preexisting ce
Immune System in Animals
Types of vaccination: Subunit-Isolated viral proteins, Inactivated-Damaged
by chemical treatment, Attenuated-Live. Barriers to entry:
o Eyes-Blinking wipes tears w/ antibacterial enzyme lysozyme.
o Ears-Hair/earwax trap pathogens
Water & Electrolyte Balance in Animals
Hyperosmotic: Higher solute content than outside solution. Freshwater sh are hyperosmotic
to environment. Water diffuses in, lose solutes, excrete lots of urine & actively pump in
Hyposmotic: Lower so
Animal Form & Function
Connective Tissue: Loosely arranged cells in liquid, jellylike, or solid
matrix w/ extracellular bers & other materials secreted by connective tissues.
o Loose: Lots of brous proteins in soft matrix. Packing material b/w organs or
nutrients, social signals, & damage to DNA. Prevents growth of mature
cells in G0 that shouldnt grow anymore.
G2 checkpoint is after S phase. If DNA is damaged or if chromosomes
arent replicated correctly, the dephosphorylation & activation of MP
Central Nervous System: Nervous system passes info by electrical signals,
which are produced/passed along by neurons w/ brain & spinal cord. Peripheral Nervous
System: Nerves that come/go from tissues. Motor
neurons innervate muscles,
Energy from this is used to make ATP.
Chemiosmosis Hypothesis: ETC pumps protons from matrix into
intermembrane space, creating an electrochemical gradient-proton gradient & electric potential
gradient across the membrane, which creates
An Introduction to Carbohydrates CH2On
Have a carbonyl group [C=O], several hydroxyl groups, & many C-H bonds. Aldose:
Carbonyl group @ end of carbon chain.
Ketose: Carbonyl group in middle of carbon chain.
Monosaccharides: Vary in the places of the ca
Gas Exchange & Circulation
Gas exchange organs maximize rates of O2 & CO2 diffusion by: presenting large, thin surface
area to environment & maintaining steep partial pressure gradient that favors entry of O2 &
elimination of CO2.
Gas exchange b/w envir
Lipids, Membranes, & the First Cells
Fats: [Triaclyglycerol/triglyceride]. Glycerol linked by ester linkages to 3
fatty acids. Form through dehydration reactions. NOT POLYMERS!
FATTY ACIDS NOT MONOMERS!
Steroids: 4 ring structure made from isoprene subu
In animal cells, ECMs provide structural support for the cell & help cells stick together. Most
common is collagen.
Cells interact w/ ECM through a protein called integrins, transmembrane protein that binds to
ECM proteins on out
Nucleic Acids: Phosphate group, 5 carbon sugar w/ ring structure,
o Purines: A & G. 2 rings [5 or 6 carbons]
o Pyrimidines: C, U, T. 1 ring.
o Purines: A & G. 2 rings [5 or 6 carbons]
o Pyrimidines: C, U,
Initiation: Sigma binds to promoter, DNA helix opens, strands separate. Template strand
threaded through channel leading to active site in RNA polymerase. Ribonucleoside
triphosphates enter a channel @ bottom of enzyme & diffuse to active s
Protein Structure and Function
All amino acids have: A central carbon atom, H2N-amino functional group, and COOHcarboxyl functional group, hydrogen atom, & variable side chain-R.
Non-Polar Amino Acids: Side chains have no charge & dont form bonds with H
Plants develop continuously, dont commit cells to gamete production until
later in development, & produce gametes by mitosis in haploid cells.
Cell proliferation, cell differentiation, & cell-cell interactions in plants, no
Inside the Cell
Gene: The segment of DNA that contains the information for building an RNA molecule or
Nucleoid: A localized area of the cell where bacterial chromosomes are found, usually in the
center of the cell. Theres no membrane separ
EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE
Chromosomes contain a long double helix of DNA wrapped around
Gene: A section of DNA that encodes a specic protein or RNA.
Interphase: The non-dividing phase BEFORE mitosis where cells spend most of their ti
Principles of Development
o Proliferation & Apoptosis: Cells divide w/ directed
divisions to acquire particular shape as embryo grows. o Movement: Nonrandom. Moving cells
neighbors. Gastrulation. 1 movement turns early embry