CHAPTER 8 TAKING TURN525EQUENT|AL GAMES It't'l'l'H PERFECI' INFORMATION
implemented, there is no cost to assigning an inappropriate action In . . unlin.
gency that isn't expected to occur. In other words, it is costless to ma}. - bluff
that is not called.
3
Man's mind. once stretched by a new idea. never regains its original
dimensions.
—Ouvea WENDELL HOLMES
Introduction
IN THtS CHAPTER, WE GO beyond two- and three—player games to consider a richer
:tl‘i‘tu of settings. This means examining not only! games
Game Theory
ECON 461
Spring Semester 2016
Time & Location: TTh, 10:05 am - 11:30 am, Science Library 302
Final Time & Location: TBA
Please see nal page for make-up nal policy!
Andreas Duus Pape
Department of Economics
Binghamton University
email: apape@bi
Econ. 461
Fall 2015
H. Ofek
Problem Set #7
Oligopolistic Competition
Due Fri. 11/6
Readings: Dixit et al. text: pp. 133 - 142
Pindyck & Rubinfeld, Chap. 12 (posted on Blackboard)
I. Cournots Models
1. (Cournots duopoly with a homogeneous product): Answer
Strictly Competitive Games
and
Security (maxminimization) Strategies
Strictly Comp. Games
Security Level, Defined
Security level of a player in a game is the largest (expected)
payoff he or she can guarantee no matter what the other players
may do.
ECON
4/8/2015
Strategic moves
(Readings in Dixit et al. text: Chap. 10)
Strategic moves
Commitments, Threats & Promises
Strategic moves are first (or early) moves taken by players to
fix the rules of later play and thereby alter the equilibrium
outcome of the
Introduction
Game theory is the study of situations of
conflict and cooperation
Sequential Games
What is a game?
A game is defined as a situation in which all the following components are in place:
1. At least two mindful players.
As distinct from mindle
Sequential Move Games
E. Zermelos theorem
Sequential Games
Zermelos theorem: In the game of chess there is
precisely one of the following three possibilities:
ECON 461 Fall 2014, H. Ofek
1. White has a winning strategy.
2. Black has a winning strategy.
3.
Repeated-Play Games
Part C: Finite repetition of unknown length
1
Repeated-play
Finite repetition of unknown length
We can use the discount factor to reinterpret the case of a repeated game that ends after a
random (i.e., a finite but unknown) number of r
Econ. 461
Fall 2015
H. Ofek
Problem Set #7 Follow up Questions
Due Tue. 11/6/2015
Question 1:
Follow-up questions 1 to 3 below refer to the situation in which DMC is a monopoly.
1.
[Q1-(a)]: p = (a) 36;
(b) 48;
2.
[Q1-(a)]: QDTC = (a) 36;
3.
[Q1-(a)]: = (
10/30/2015
Oligopolistic Competition
A. Cournot's models
Oligopoly.
Cournot's models
Cournot's models are based on the expectation that each firm in an
industry maximizes profits assuming its competitors output remains
constant at the current level.
ECON
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Econ. 461
Fall 2015
H. Ofek
Problem Set #4
Follow-up Questions
Question 1:
1. Players II best response to strategy s1 by player I is
(a) t1;
(b) t2;
(c) t3;
(d) both t1 and t3;
(e) none of these.
2. Players II best response to strategy s2 is
(a) t1;
(b) t
Econ. 461
Fall 2015
H. Ofek
Problem Set #4
Best Response
Due: Wed. - 10/7/2015
Readings in Dixit et al. text: pp. 104 - 105, 133 - 163
1. Using the method of best response obtain the pure-strategy Nash equilibrium in the following game
(which is not domin
Econ. 461
Fall 2015
H. Ofek
Problem Set #5
Follow-up Questions
Question 1:
1.
(A): Which of the following pairs is a pure-strategy Nash equilibrium in game A?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
2.
(BR).
(TL).
(TR).
(BL).
none of these.
(A): Which of the following pairs
Econ. 461
Fall 2015
H. Ofek
Problem Set #5
Mixed Strategy Equilibria
Due:Wed. 10/14/15
1.
Readings in Dixit et al. text: Chap. 7, and pp. 262-268.
Find all pure- and mixed-strategy Nash equilibria (if any) of the following games by constructing, in each c
Econ. 461
Fall 2015
H. Ofek
Problem Set #6
Follow up Questions
(Due: 28/10/2015)
Question 1:
1. [Q1] Which (if any) of the three games in this question is strictly competitive?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Game A, only.
Game B, only.
Game C, only.
Both A and C.
Bo
Econ. 461
Fall 2015
H. Ofek
Problem Set #6
Maxminimization and Zero-sum Games
(Due:Wed. 10/28)
Readings in Dixit et al. text: pp. 21-22, 106-107, and Chaps. 7, 8.
1. Determine which (if any) of the following three games are strictly competitive.
L
R
T
2,2
3/28/2015
Oligopolistic Competition
B. Stackelbergs leadership model
1
Oligopoly.
First Mover Advantage
The Stackelberg leadership model differs from the Cournots duopoly in that output
decisions are made sequentially rather than simultaneously.
Firm 1
Repeated-Play Games
(Part A)
Repeated-play
The overall game & the stage game
Repeated games are played on two levels: the overall game and a
component game which is repeated.
The game which is repeated is called the stage game
o
typically, a finite simu
50
CHAPTER 2: BUILDING A MODEL OF .It STRATEGIC SITUATION
l Does the game have to be factually accurate?
If our objective in formulating and then solving a game is to tilltlt'tsltlnd
behavior, then what matters is not what is [actually or objectively. t
134
[HAPTER 4 STABLE PLAY: NASH EQUIUBRIA IN DISCRETE GAMES WITH TWO 0R THREE PLAYERS
. One of the critical moments early on in the The Lord “film Rita," I ; -\
is the meeting in Rit‘endell to decide who should take the One H u.
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256
CHAPTER 3': KEEP 'EM GUESSING: MNDCIHIZED STRATEGIES
strategies assigned positive probability must yield the highest expet r null—f,
and it is for that reason that a player is content to let a random det-ju- .ir - ‘ mine
how she behaves. If that weren
Evolutionary Game Theory
A. Basic Concepts, notation & Definitions
Evolutionary Games
Introduction
Evolutionary game theory is essentially the study of frequency-dependent selection (natural-, or otherwise). Expected payoffs are given in terms of expecte
Zero-Sum Games
Part C: Mixed Strategies, 2xn games
Zerosum Games
Approach to games larger than 2x2
A mixed strategy in a game larger than 2x2 may generally assign zero probability to one (or more) of the pure strategies. The following rules of thumb are