Outline for Material on Test 2- BY 261 Microbiology
This is a short outline to help you get your study notes in order. This is not an exhaustive list. If I discussed it
in class it is fair game for the test. Good Luck!
Chapter 5 Microbial Metabolism
Nerves Test (special sense organs)
1. A./B. The _ and _ compose the fibrous tunic of the eye.
2. A. What is the colored area of the eye surrounding the pupil?
B. This is highly vascularized and provides nutrients to the retina.
3. A. The _ is the space be
Microbiology Test 1 Notes
1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells
2. The cell is the most basic unit of life
3. All cells arise from preexisting cells
- Abiogenesis: theory of spontaneous generation
- Living organisms can ar
Microbiology Test 2 Notes
Control of Microbial Growth
Proposed by Lister and Ignats Semmelweis
Autoclave- on PP.
Sepsis: Indicates bacterial contamination
Asepsis: Absence of significant contamination
Aseptic techniques: used to prevent
All digestive structures have huge #s of bacteria EXCEPT: stomach and small intestine
40% of feces is bacteria
Large intestine can have up to 100 billion bacteria per gram of feces
Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Klebsiella and P
- respiratory zone place of gas exchange
- ADS anatomical dead space area of no gas exchange
o nasal cavity, larynx, pharynx, trachea, primary and lobar bronchi
- respiratory tract has mucosa membrane
- upper respiratory tract has
Physical growth requirements Temperature, pH, osmotic pressure, etc.
Chemical growth requirement Water, carbon and nitrogen sources,
minerals, oxygen, organic growth factors.
Psychrophiles Cold-loving; grow best at 15-20 oC
Mesophiles Grow best between 2
30. The fragile cell produced when gram positive bacteria are exposed to lysozyme or penicillin is a/an
A. Protoplast B. Mycoplasma C. Spheroplast D. Glycocalyx E. Glycan A. Protoplast 31. The function of
bacterial endospores is A. Convert gaseous nitroge
-Membrane-bound: attached to rER
-Free: in cytoplasm
-In chloroplasts and mitochondria
-ATP produces energy for the entire cell
-most prominent organelle
10. A bacterial genus that has waxy mycolic acid in the cell walls is A. Mycobacterium B. Mycoplasma
C. Streptococcus D. Corynebacterium E. Salmonella A. Mycobacterium 11. The basal body of a
flagellum is anchored into the A. Hook B. Outer membrane C. Cel
The genus name can be abbreviated to save space or if the genus name has
already been stated.
Example: Staphylococcus aureus can be abbreviated S. aureus
From most general to most specific
Phylum or Division
the specialized area of biology that deals with organisms too small to be seen
with the naked eye
Major groups of microorganisms
Viruses: noncellular, parasitic, protein-coated genetic elements
r. Oliver Wendell Holmes and Dr. Ignaz Semmelweis:
Showed that women became infected in the maternity ward after examinations by
physicians who had been working in the autopsy rooms
First to utilize hand washing and misting operating rooms
First observations of microbes in the 1600's
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Made a crude microscope to examine threads in fabrics
Made drawings of what he called "animalcules" in rainwater and scraped from his
Where is bacteria found?
deep in the earth's crust (most abundent), polar ice caps, oceans, and inside the
bodies of plants and animals
True/False: Microscopic organisms produce more oxygen than plants
True/False: More than 50% of the microbes on the
Microbicides for Prevention of HIV infection
Worldwide there are an estimated 42 million people living with
HIV/AIDS and more than 20