Value and Motivational orientations (internalization).
1. The issue becomes needs-dispositions and orientation of actors to situations.
2. Motivational orientations: analyze social phenomena to see if fits needs disposition. Cognitive,
Cathetic, and Evalu
The Self (being and becoming throughout the life course)
1. Situational self (Presentation of Self in Everyday Life) (see also)
2. Trust and acceptance
o Managing the tension between between spontaneity and social expectations
o Maintaining a stable self
Theories have empirical implications
Assume the existence of a real world
Aim to increase understanding, not to accomplish political, moral, or social ends
Have empirical implications
If X, then Y, where X and Y are observables
Society and Psychic Systems (as autopoietic systems)
1. Basic element of society is communication
2. Communication is produced by society
3. Individual relevant in as much as he or she communicates (or is thought to be
4. "Secrets" part of
1. Looking-Glass Self (see also and DSS or local)
o 3 stage process: Imagine and prepare, Present and imagine response, Modify
based on interpretation.
o Imagination and Interpretation.
o Need "they" to be "I"
o See lecture notes o
A Structural-Functional Model
1. Criticized functional unity (some structures endure and may not be functional)
2. Criticized universal functionalism (some may be a problem).
3. Criticized indispensability.
4. Argued for empirical test, and standardizatio
Rational Choice Theory
People act intentionally to maximize their individual utility (rewards and resources).
People examine the environment, weigh possible courses of action, and choose what they
view as the most expedient path to their goals.
The cause must occur before the effect
It is possible to change the value of the dependent variable by changing the causal
In other words, if you change X, Y will change
To infer causality,
Loss of dialectic between people and social structure.
Loss of capacity to think critically.
We become wrapped up in consumption rather than "becoming."
Technology (at work and at play) comes to control us.
We live (continue to live) in a modern world
Modernity is a force pushing into the future-overwhelming all in its path.
People steer it, but ineffectively and always at risk of losing control
There are great rewards-the products of mode
Introduction to Sociological Theory
Who am I? What am I doing here? How? Why? So What?
These are the questions that motivated the classical sociological theorists (Marx, Durkheim, and
Weber), who offered answers to these types of general qu
Founders of the functionalist perspective:
August Comte (1798-1857)
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
mile Durkheim (1858-1917)
August Comte (1798-1857) "father of sociology"
The science about society
Comte invented the term sociology
The Civilizing Process: behaviors once allowed become, over time, unacceptable.
What was once acceptable (or not taken into account) becomes noticed and problematic
Until people began commenting on such behaviors-there wasn't anything"ru